PDF El amor hace: Descubre una vida secretamente increíble en un mundo ordinario (Spanish Edition)

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Cubi has had the advantage of much experience as an instructor in the language, since the first puplication of his Grammar. He appears to have minutely noted the difficulties experienced by his numerous scholars, and has explained them in the most satisfactory manner. Those great obstacles to the rapid progress of the student, the irregular verbs, the difference between ser and estar, and the per- sonal pronouns, are removed by the ample elucidations of the author. The alphabetical list of the former, the full explanation and copious notes on the latter, make them plain to the dullest comprehension.

The disposition of the ex- ercises has been altered materially for the better. The declensions of the nouns and verbs are all of them translated, which is essentially necessary for the English learner ; and what is invaluable to a person who wishes assistance in translating, and who is prosecuting the study of the language by himself, a copious Index of each point treated of in the work is added. This last is of itself an improvement entitling the second edition to great praise. In every point of view, this work may be looked upon as by far the best now before the public for the useful purposes for which it is intended.

Cubi has made many important additions and improvements in his second edition, which give evidence of much care and exertion ; and we cheerfully recommend it to all, who are desirous of obtaining a thorough knowledge of the Spanish language. Many of the sciences owe their origin to the ancients, and a great part of the most sublime existing literature has been handed down to us from the remotest periods. We see, on the other hand, that as political revo- lutions give rise to new interest and idioms, and the spirit of improvement is continually extending the range of discovery, the mutual relation between the different parts of the globe occupies a wider space, and becomes more important.

The means of intellectual improvement are also very much increased by a knowledge of languages. A great man has not yet been found, whose energies were not roused, or whose talents were not improved, by some model of literary or scientific excellence. Models of this kind have multiplied, as languages have increased. He who, five hundred years since, to become an orator, could only resort to a Demos- thenes or a Cicero, has now, in addition, a Burke and a Pitt — a Bossuet and a Massillon — a Granada and a Leon.

In the same manner, the merchant, whose speculations were confined within the narrow limits of his city, or of his coun- try, may now carry them to the extremities of a world, at that time, unknown. Impressed with these reflections, it soon occurred to the author, that immense benefits would result, if, by some sim- ple method, the acquisition of languages could be facilitated. Translation, being considered that branch in the study of a language, on which all others depend, became the first object of his attention.

His thoughts were consequently engrossed by a plan, which, while it would be suited to the tender and growing capacity of youth, would also afford every possible facility to any one, who should wish to prose- cute the study of a language. With views like these, the author did not venture on his undertaking, until he had availed himself of every suggestion which he could obtain from experienced professors, or eminent individuals — until he had made a study of every system of translation, distin- guished by any useful invention — until he had followed the student, step by step, through the crowd of difficulties and perplexities, which frequently beset his path and impede his progress.

This plan has been first applied to the Spanish, this being the language of more immediate importance to this extensive community. That this new system will perfectly correspond to the purposes for which it is intended, the author will not pretend to determine. He will, notwithstanding, explain the nature and arrangement of his labours, that some conclusions may be formed concerning their practical utility. As progress, however rapid, is gradual, and the mind of man, however stupendous, improves by degrees, the author has commenced his work by some easy moral lessons.

These are followed by a few instructive anecdotes, accounts of heroic actions, and sprightly witticisms, all noted for purity and simplicity of style. Now the student is supposed to have acquired some knowledge of the mechanism of translation, and he enters into narrations. After narrations, come descrip- tions, portraits, and characters, which, being more brilliant in language, are also more difficult to translate.

XI parisons, invocations, are compositions of a higher order than the former, and have therefore been placed next in suc- cession. The work then concludes by some allegories, fictions, and a few select pieces of poetry, which increase the collection to nearly one hundred and fifty pages. It being one part of the design of this work to form the taste of the student, few extracts have been admitted into it which are not master-pieces in their kind, and did not come from the pen of Granada or Cervantes — Solis or Quevedo — Gracian or Garcilaso — Mariana or Feijoo — Saavedra or Me- lendez — Olavides or Cadalso.

These are proud ornaments of the Spanish literature, and it is in the immortal works of these authors chiefly, that the language is found in its native splendour and idiomatic purity. The author will now proceed to state the method he has used, to place, through the medium of these models, the translating of the Spanish idiom, within the reach of the American or English student.

The difficulty in distinguishing the verb in all its various ramifications of moods, tenses, and persons, from other parts of speech, has often been found to impede the progress of young students. Hence, perhaps, arise the reluctance with which they sometimes attempt, and the facility with which they frequently relinquish, the study of a foreign language. To obviate this inconvenience, all the verbs which occur in this work have been printed in Italic characters.

Every language, if compared with another, will present many uncommon modes of expression, known under the appellation of idioms. Of these, no useful selection can be made. They are subject to constant modification, and, ac- cording to their position in a sentence, to a variety of mean- ings. Every nicety of idiom has its peculiar place, and the most elegant expression, if not appropriately applied, may become an inaccuracy of language. To obviate the difficulties which this part of the language presents to the beginner, every nicety of expression, or intricacy of grammar, has been fully explained as it occurs.

Thus theory is joined to practice, and those obstacles, which, so long as they are not removed by oral explanation, throw even the most zealous student into languor and despondency, will, in this work, form new incentives for the prosecution of his labours. In noting the difficulties which the learner encounters, as he advances in a language, none has more forcibly struck the author, than the unavoidable deficiency of dictionaries.


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Participles and tenses of verbs constitute a considerable por- tion of a language ; yet they are not, nor can they be, in- cluded in any lexicon, unless it be swollen to an unwieldy size. If the student happens, therefore, to have forgotten the root of any branch of a verb, which the most tenacious memory will not always retain, he is immediately bewil- dered. Proper names present also no inconsiderable bar to his improvement. The meaning of a whole sentence fre- quently depends on an accurate knowledge of a fictitious personage, or an unknown writer — of a remote river, or an obscure place.

These words are generally spelled differ- ently in various languages, and even when they happen to agree, they sometimes cannot be found in immense encyclo- paedias. Parsing is allowed, by all professors, to be the only means, by which, in translation, any solid advancement can be made. Yet every experienced instructor knows, that, in the only manner in which grammars and dictionaries are or perhaps can be made, the meaning of a page must be known before it can be parsed. We are, therefore, deprived of the means, which, in the acquisition of a language, are considered the most effectual ; and the beginner is led into a labyrinth, the moment he is obliged to understand through the medium of analysis.

Xlll To be thus entangled in any one of these intricacies, creates in young learners, unless endued with superior powers, that disgust at application, that feeling of distress, which is so apparent when they are called on to study. If, under these circumstances, the instructor is one of those who think that youth must learn by intuition, and instead of clear explanations, employs rude usage, the young student is left to linger for years, afraid of his preceptor and appalled by his task.

It has long been the wish of the author, and it is now the chief design of this work, to remove all these obstacles. He has, therefore, used means, which, it is fondly hoped, will be found equal to the object. Every word contained in the extracts, whether proper or common, primitive or derivative, has been carefully selected, and alphabetically arranged. The author has been particularly careful to give a full analysis of every part of speech. Thus, in the pronouns, the case in which they are used, and the source from which they are derived, have been explained. As to the participles, not only the verb from which they have been formed, will be found, but whether they are absolute or used as adjectives, as substantives, or in any other way.

Respecting the verbs, every particular concerning them has been fully given. On a certain vowel of every Spanish word, consisting of more than one syllable, an emphatic stress is laid. This vowel is sometimes distinguished by an acute accent ; but, in general, no sign whatever is given. That the student may never be at a loss to know on what vowel to lay this stress, so important in the acquisition of the Spanish language, every word contained in the Vocabulary has been regularly accented.

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Fully convinced that it is through the medium of our understanding alone, that we can attain any knowledge, the author has always explained, never performed, the task of the student. A student may, for example, find the full meaning of every word, and the explanation of every difficulty ; still these are but auxiliaries to his conception of the meaning of a sen- tence, — the meaning of a sentence has not been conceived for him. Perfection, however desired, has not probably been at- tained in the execution of a work, in which, from a confused mass of words, an alphabetical list was to be formed, and, from a maze of idiomatic perplexity, clearness and perspi- cuity were to be produced.

Some words contained in the extracts, may have been omitted in the vocabulary — some may have been misplaced — and some may have been printed in Roman or Italic characters, when the contrary should have been done. These, however, are defects of very little importance ; they are seleom noticed ; and when they are, they can readily be supplied.

To conclude these few remarks, the author will observe, that, in this undertaking, it has been his ardent desire to be useful. Whether amidst the great number of his professional avocations, this wish has merely been a pleasing delusion to beguile his literary toil, or a hope which experience will realize, the event must decide.

Felics Verela. SO Alegria,. Jose Antonio Conde. El Valiente Ufano, Jeronimo Feijoo. Humanidad del Czar, Jeronimo Feijoo. Manuel Jose Quintana. Jeronimo Feijoo. Pablo Olavides. Lms de Granada. Juan de Mariana. Garcia Malo. Juicio Final, Luis de Granada. Jil Bias. Miguel de Cervantes. Ill Don Quijote a Sancho Dormicio, idem. Diego Saavedra Fajardo. Jose Joaquin de Mora. Ruiz Padron. Antonio de Solis. BaUasar Gracian. Quejas de Nemoroso, Garcilaso de la Vega. Juan Melendez Valdes.

Esta virtud no se 5 dquiere sino por la reflecsion continua que llega a 6 ha- ernos 7 habituar a juzgar bien. Procuremos conocer las 8 1 For rules on reading, orthography and accent of the Spanish Lan- guage, see the Author's Grammar, from p. Whenever the student is referred to Grammar in this book, it must always be under- stood that of the Author, 5th or 6th Edition entitled, 6 A New Spanish Grammar, adapted to every Class of Learners.

By Mariano Cubi i Soler. Nos, os, le, la, lo, les, las, me, te, se, objective personal pronouns, are placed after infinitives, imperatives and present participles, forming with them one single word. Sin embargo 10 es preciso estar al tanto de 11 las atenciones de los otros para dirijir nuestras operaciones respecto a ellos. Felics Varela. La justicia nos prescribe dar a cada uno lo que le corres- ponde; i es la virtud que sostiene la sociedad. Se, is frequently used, as it is in this case, to form the passive voice. La fortaleza sostiene al hombre 30 en los peligros ; le ensefla a sufrir los males; a no vacilar en la abundancia de los bienes ; i a emprender graudes obras.

Pero es preciso que no dejenere en temeridad, 6 mejor dicho, 21 en barbarie ; pues hai muchos que creen que son fuertes porque se esponen a todos los peligros sin necesidad, i buscan, por decirlo asi, 29 los males, para ostent. Otros desti- erran de su alma la compasion ; otros aspiran al barbaro ejercicio de sus fuerzas contra sus semejantes, como lo harian entre si los animales mas feroces, 23 i esto creen que es la virtud de la fortaleza.

La templanza pone unos justos limites a todos nuestros apetitos para que 25 no se opo? SO and , note at bottom. No solo en los manjares, como se crcc 2S por lo comun, 29 sino tambien en ios deleites de los demas sentidos, tierce cabida 30 la templanza. La benevolencia produce en nosotros una sensacion apaci- ble, i en los demas, aprecio; pues todos avian al que 33 desea los bienes para sus semejantes.

Sin embargo, es preciso que no dejenere en una absoluto condescendencia, i un deseo de que todos consigan lo que apeteccn, ora sea justo, ora sea injusto. La conmiseracion es como el distintivo de la humanidad, pues solo las fleras no se resienten de los estragos de sus semejantes, ni ponen termino a su furor. Pero es preciso no confundir la conmiseracion con la 74 debilidad que pretende dejar impunes los delitos i protejer al 35 malevolo. Personal pronouns, as subjects of verbs, are only used in a few cases. Felics Varela IRA.

La ira convierte al hombre en una fiera, privandole de todo, el uso de su razon. Basta decir esto para entenderse que debe ser reprimida. En tal caso debe arreglarse por la lei divina i humana, para no perder el amor natural que debe- mos a todo hombre, por el odio que merece el vicio. Amemos al malo i aborrezcamos su maid ad ; pero mientras no se cor- rija manifestemosle el rigor que merece.

La desesperacion siempre es irracional, i jamas tiene funda- mento. El hombre debil, el hombre de un espiritu bajo, es el que no puede sufrir los males, i se desespera. Prueba la venganza tin alma debil i rastrera; porque ver- daderamente los males recibidos no se destruyen 44 con hacer otros iguales al que 45 los causo; i es una necia complacencia la de no seiitir 46 los males porque otro tambien los siente. Pero no se debe inferir de aqui 47 que el que hace an dano se quede impune ; pues hai el recurso de aplicarle la pena que merece, no por venganza, sino por correccion, para evitar que haga mayores daiios, Felics Varela.

La tristeza debe moderarse 48 con todo empeno porque un alma triste es un alma decaida 6 abatida ; i en el abatimiento no pucden ejercerse 49 acciones grandes. Debemos considerar un espiritu triste como un cuerpo desfallecido, que apenas puede ejercer las acciones mas sencillas. In translating the above phrase, construct it thus : los medios de evitarla 6 proporcionarla no se advierten. La alegria ecsalta al alma, i es como el gran resorte de sus operaciones 5 mas cuando es escesiva llega a trastornar el espiritu i le da cierta lijereza opuesta a la madurez i buen juicio.

No te alabes a ti 52 mismo porque no granjeas sino el menosprecio ; no procures hacer ridiculos a los otros, porque es peligroso emperio. Mir a el orijen de la inquietud que traes, i las desgracias de que te quejas, i verds que provienen de tu propia locura ; de tu amor propio ; 53 i de tu desarreglada imajinacion. Corrij 50 Te proportioned, discordias, 'bring discord upon you. No tengas envidia 56 al que goza una felicidad aparente, porque no conoces sus penas secretas. El hipocrita opera de un modo con- trario a sus sentimientos ; estd profundamente escondido : da a sus discursos las apariencias de verdad, mientras que 59 la unica occupacion de su vida, es el engano.

Es incomprehen- sible para los necios, pero estd mui descubierto a la vista del prudente. Es la esperanza Una de las facultades del alma, que mat sirven a hacemos felices en este mundo de miserias, cuando estd guiada por el juicio i la moderacion. Debemos pues 54 No te digas jamas a ti mismo, 'never say to thyself. Pero al mismo tiempo es preciso que no abata nuestra actividad, 6 sirva de instrumento 60 para in terceptar nuestros esfuerzos. Hagamos pues de nuestra parte 61 lo que se debe 62 para que se efectue lo que esperamos; 63 dejemos sr ecsito al Todo Poderoso Cubi.

La urbaniclad es una obligacion que debe el hombre a sus semej antes en su trato con ellos. Es de la mayor impor- tancia, pues, que los padres inculquen esta idea a sus hijos desde la cuna. La urbaniclad pone, en gran medida, freno a nuestras pasiones ; i da, en el trato social, cierta delicadeza, que sin ella los hombres dejenerartan en brutos. No se limita este deber, como muchos creen, en una mera forma esterior, que se ha inventado parar obrar segun el estado de algunos indivicluos respecto de otros ; no, este deber va mucho mas lejos.

Es una virtue! Es la que ensefia al juez a ser recto con afabili- dad ; al jeneral, severo con ternura ; la que quita toda osten- tacion i orgullo al 65 ponderoso ; i la que inspvra a todos los hombres en jeneral a hacerae agradables por medios dulces, verdacleros i virtuosos. Indi spues to el rei de Inglaterra Henrique octavo con el rei de Francia, Francisco primero, resolvio e? Luego que el prelado supo el objeto de su embajada, temeroso de perder 68 la vida, si trataba a Francisco primero del modo que querta su amo, le represento el peligro a que le esponia, rogdndole con instancia que le ecsonerase 69 de semejante comision.

Un hombre respetable, que habia hecho gran papel en Paris, quedb reducido a la indijencia, i solo se alimentaba de las limosnas de pan que de ocho en ocho 75 dias le mandahan de la parroquia. Un dia encargb le enviasen mayor cantidad ; llamole el cura, i le preguntb si vivta solo. El cura le manifesto que el solo era un distribuidor del pan de los po- bres, i que la honradez ecsijia que se deshiciese de su perro.

In such cases the articles el, la, los, or las, is used. Cierta senora tenia un hijo a quien no querza contradecir para que no se pusiese enfermo. Los parientes, amigos, i aun el mismo marido, le Meier on presente 79 que iba a perder al chico, mas todo fue inutil. Un dia oyb a su hijo llorar en el patio, con muestras de mucha colera. Al instante corre, i averigua que la causa 80 es negarle un criado 81 cierta cosa que le pedia : "Bien impertinente sois," le dijo la seiiora, "de 82 no dar al nino lo que os pide. Esta escena la avergonzb i corrijib en lo sucesivo. Cecilio De Corpas. Here it might just as well be left out 85 En terminos, 'so much,' 'in such a manner.

Mas lejos, nuestros ojos perdzan de vista la inmensa planicie de los mares. Era mediodia ; la arena nos abrasaba los pies, i a cada paso que ddbamos se levantaba una polvareda inflamada que nos quemaba los ojos, introduciendose por nuestros labios resecos. Asi ibamos subiendo 91 llenos de languidez ; mas mui pronto apresurdmos el paso, cuando percibz? Llenos de un pavor relijioso entramos oor aquel sitio, cuya boca despedza una dulce frescura. Este delicioso lugar ofrecza a la vez cuanto podia recrear los sentidos, pues los arboles rodeaban una glorieta de ces- pedes, regada por una fuente de fresca i cristalina agua ; ramas cubiertas de peras i doradas manzanas se inclinaban hacia ella.

La fuente salza a borbotones 93 del pie de un se- pulcro rodeado de madre de selva, sauces i yedra. Mi corazon bendice a aquel 94 cuya mano benefica ha plantado estos arboles, i cuyas cenizas puede ser reposen aqui. Xe- 90 Construct Licias i yo ibamos d Delfos. Su vida solo fue una progre- sion de beneficios. Queriendo seguir dispensandolos des- pues de su muerte, condujo esta fuente aqui, i plantb los arboles.

El agua de esta fuente es tan pura, como las frutas deliciosas, i fresca la sombra. Ser fitil 96 Los tuyos, 'thine,' i. Note En sus ultimos dias, vema continuamente a sentarse aqui al lado del camino, i con su aire dulce i amable saluddba a los viajeros, ofreciendo refresco a los fatigados. La sombra i el agua estdn lejos de este sitio, es necesario ejecutar mi designio.

Cuando el cielo llamb su alma a si, para pre- miar su beneficencia, nosotros depositamos su ataud en esa tumba, para que cuantos pasasen hendijesen sus cenizas. Cecilio de Corpas. En la tarde de mi hermoso dia de verano, salt a pasear para disfrutar la frescura del campo. A pocos pasos, perdz de vista mi heredad, i empezo a ensancharse mi espiritu con los objetos que se le presentabdn. Ya los ganados eniraban en sus rediles, i los bueyes con paso lento volvian a sus casas, cuando distraido me halle a la orilla de un Wo, bastante entrada la noche.

Volvt la vista, i adverti cerca de mi a un re- spetable anciano de rodillas, que oraba vivamente. Fijc la atencion, i con el silencio, entendi estas palabras : "O tu, cuyo poder es infinito, padre de los hombres, desde ese trono sublime, rodeado de coros inumerables de espiritus puros, dignate escuchar a un debil mortal, i recibir sus home najes. Lo conozco; toco el fin de mis dias; pronto mis cenizas se mezclardn con las de mis padres ; cuando esto se verifique; yo os recomiendo mis hijos ] tened piedad de su tierna madre ; velad sobre estos objetos caros ; 6 Dios mio, no los abandones jamas.

To crez ver entonces no se que de divino brillar en aquel rostro. It means 'something,' 'a certain something. Juanot i Colin aprendian a leer en casa del maestro de la aldea; aquel era hijo de un mulatero, i Colin, de un buen labrador. Poco tiempo despues un ayuda de camara vino en posta, trayendo una segunda carta al serior marques de la Juanoteria, que era la orden de su serior padre que fuese a Paris.

Juanot month en la silla volante, alargando la mano a Colin con una sonrisa de pro- teccion noble. Colin llorb, i Juanot partio entre la pompa i la gloria. Colin, siempre tierno, escribib una carta a su antiguo com- pafiero; pero el marquesito no conteslb, i Colin estuvo enfermo de la pesadumbre. El senor de la Juanoteria trataha de educar brillantemente a su hijo; pero la senora marquesa no quiso que aprendiese Unos amigos de escuela, 'school-inates. Este, dedicado a semej antes tareas, se hizo un libertino, gas t undo sumas inmensas en falsos placeres, interin los marqueses padres solo se ocupaban de vivir como grandes senores; Una viuda joven i noble, de poca fortuna, se resolvib de apoderarse de los bienes de los marqueses, casandose con el senorito.

En la noche del matrimonio, ya cerca de efectilarse la ceremonia, llega un criado mui de prisa : " Seiiores,- ' dijo, " yo traigo otras novedades ; los acreedores i la justicia se hart apoderado de la casa ; todos huyen, i trato de asegurar mis salarios. Despues que llorb con su madre, pasb a casa de la novia, quien, enterada del suceso, le preguntb que queria. El novio queda inmovil. The student, however, is referred to Grammar, from page to , where he will find whatever he may wish concerning them.

Venia en el coche un hombre rustico, pero de buena cara, con su mujer i familia. El viajero contemplo aT marques inmoble i dolorido : " j O Dios! Te ayudaremos. La bondad de Colin desplegb el buen natural del corazon de Juanot, que el mundo no le kali a qui- tado todavia, i conocib le era imposible abandonar a sus padres. Un Espariol i un Frances, marineros, se hallaban cautivos en Arjel ; el primero se llamaba Antonio i el otro Rojerio, i la casualidad hizo los empleasen 1 ' 34 en un mismo trabajo.

Como la amistad es el consuelo de los desgraciados, los dos cautivos se consolaban mutuamente, hablaban de sus familias, lloraban juntos, i asi sobrellevaban las penas a que estaban condenados. Estaban trabajando en la construccion de un camino que atravesaba una montana ; un dia el Espariol se detuvo, i dejando caer sus brazos ; dib un profundo suspiro, mirando toda la estension del mar : " Amigo," dijo a Rojerio, a todos mis votos se kalian en esa estension de agua : ; que no pu- No le habia quitado, 'had not taken away from him.

Creo ver ami mujer e hijos que me alargan los brazos desde Cadiz, 6 que lloran por mi muerte. Un dia abrazando con transporte a su compaiiero : w mira? Si, manana ese buque pasard a dos leguas de la costa, i entonces nos precipitaremos al mar de lo alto de la roca : esperaremos el buque, 6 perecere- mos, pues la muerte es preferible a una cruel esclavitud. Pero yo no se nadar, i tu si. La amistad sostendrd mi valor, te amo mucho para que deje de hacer milagros.

Mas Creo ver, 'I believe I see. LV and notes, p. Intimate friends address themselves with tu, and not vmd, 'you. Adios, amado Rojerio. Rojerio al contrario se figuraba ahogado, i causante de la perdida de su companero. Por la maiiana, como no sacaseri los eselavos a la hora ordinaria, el Espaiiol se devoraba de impaciencia, i Rojerio no sabia si debut alegrarse 6 sentir este contratiempo.

En fin, vinieron a llevarlos al trabajo, i al caer del dia, vi- endose solos los dos am igos, esc lamb Antonio: "Jlprove- chemos el momento. Caen al fondo, suben; Antonio nada llevando a Rojerio, que parece openerse a los esfuerzos de su amigo, por temor de causar su perdida. Los que estaban en el buque, sorprehendidos de un espec- taculo que no distinguian bien, Cretan que era un monstruo marino lo que se acercaba a ellos.

Un nuevo objeto llama Como no sacasen, c as they did not turn out. Este los vib venir; mira a su amigo que parecia debilitarse ; hace un esfuerzo, i se separa de Antonio, diciendole : "nos persiguen ; sdlvate i dejame morir, pues interrumpo tus esfu- erzos. Un nuevo transporte de amistad reanimb al Espanol, i abalanzdndose al Frances, le coje al momento de perecer, i ambos desaparecen. La chalupa, incierta del rumbo por donde debia mar char, se habta deteniclo, mientras que una lancha enviada del navio pasaba a reconocer lo que desde el apenas disiinguian; en fin, vieron dos hombres de los cuales el uno tenia abrazado al otro, esforzdndose en nadar hacia la barca.

Al momento void esta a su socorro, i ya Antonio estaba por dejar esca- par a Rojerio, cuando oye gritar desde la lancha; entonces, estrecha a su amigo ; hace nuevos esfuerzos, i agarra con mano desfallecida uno de los bordes de la barca. Procsimo estaba a soltarse cuando los ayuddron; las fuerzas de Anto- nio estaban apuradas, i solo pndo esclamar: "socorred a mi amigo; yo mueroP Rojerio, que estaba desmayado, abrib los ojos, i viendo a Antonio tendido sin muestras de vida, se avanzb a el abrazandole i dando gritos : u j Mi amigo, bien- hechor mio!

I pier da yo una vida desgraciada, habiendo perdido a mi amigo! Antonio arrojb un suspiro ; Rojerio grita lleno de jubilo ; todos se acercan a socorrer al desgraciado Espanol , quien, abriendo los ojos i dirijiendolos hacia su compaiiero, esclamb: "jhe salvado a mi amado Rojerio! En el tiempo que Antequera esiaba ya en poder de Cris- tianos, i frontera contra el reino de Granada, halt a en ella un caballero, Alcaide de aquella ciudad, que se llamaba Nar- vaez.

Este, como era costumbre, hacia entradas en tierra de Granada algunas veces, otras enviaba jente suya que las hiciese; el mismo estilo tertian los Granadinos en todas aquellas fronteras. Era este mancebo de hasta veinte i dos a veinte i tres aiios, caballero i rani jenlil hombre : traia una marlota de seda morada mui bien guarnecida a su modo, una tocacorta mui fina sobre un bonete de grana, en un caballo mui escelente l una lanza i una adarga labrada como suelen ser las de Moros principals. Narvaez le pregunto quien era, i el dijo que era hijo del Alcaide de Ronda, bien conocido entre Cristianos por ser hombre de guerra.

Narvaez le dijo : " Maravillome de li, que siendo caballero e hijo de un Alcaide tan valiente como es tu padre, i sabicndo que estos son casos de guerra, estes tan abatido i llores como mujer, pareciendo en tu disposicion buen soldado i buen caballero. El Moro le respondib: "Sabete que viniendo a verte yo fui cautivo de los caballos de Anteguera, i me llevdron a Nar- vaez, el cual, como caballero, sabiendo mi mala fortuna me tuvo lastima, i sobre mi fe me did licencia quq te viniese a ver; i asi yo vengo a verte, no como libre, sino como esclavo; i pues yo no tengo libertad, no plegue a Dios que querien- dote yo tanto, te lleve a donde pierdas la tuya : yo me vol- vere, porque he dado mi f e, procurare rescatarme, i volvere por ti.

Esta aventura, el amor de la doncella i del Granadino, i mas la jenerosidad del Alcaide Narvaez, fue mui celebrada de los buenos caballeros de Granada, i cantada en los versos de los mej ores injenios de entonces. Llegb en la ciudad de Zaragoza un tunante publicando que sabza raros arcanos de medecina ; entre otros, el de remozar las viejas. La prosa del bribon era tan persuasiva, que las mas del pueblo lo creyeron, Llegaron pues muchisimas a pedirle que les hiciese tan precioso beneficio.

El les dijo, que cada una pusiese en una cedulilla, su nombre i la edad que tenia, como circumstancia precisa para la ejecucion del arcano. Habia entre ellas septuajenarias, octojenarias, nona- jenarias. Vinieron, i el, al uerlas, empezo a lamentar de que una Mui preciado de, the same as que se preciaba mucho de s 'who prided himself on being.

Vmd tenia ayer noventa aiios, ahora ya no tiene mas que cincuenta Vmd. Le edad, 'of age,' 'old,' understood. See those various words in the vocabulary. Un hombre que querta apartarse de su mujer, con quien tenia poca paz, parecib a este fin ante el provisor. Estrafib este la propuesta, porque conocia la mujer i era de buenas cualidades. Uno de ellos que era doctor i a quien por su grado le tocaba hablar, compuso i mandb a la memoria una larga oracion sobre el asunto ; siendo tan necio que por mas que los companeros le instdron a qi:l A lo que, 'as far as.

Siendo Urbano de jenio benignisimo, le tolerb sin cortarle, 6 interrumpirle, aunque se dejaba ver la violencia que en ello se hacm. Acabada la oracion, el papa, sin negar ni conceder, pregunto a los disputados, si qucrtarvf otra cosa. Volviendo un estudiante de Salamanca a su tierra, con mui pocos cuartos, se trataba para que no se le acabasen antes de conluir el viaje, con estrecha economia por el camino. Negose el estudiante al envite. Agrado tanto la agudeza a la huespeda, que no solo le presentb las truchas graciosamente, mas le previno la alforja para lo que le restaba de camino.

X Ser, 'being,' understood. Tomb luego el breviario debajo del brazo, i les dijo: "Seiiores. El momento actual es el tinico que nos pertenece: el que le precedib void para siempre ; el que va a seguirle es incierto. In thought or language this book is second to none of its kind. Juan Eusebio Nierembersr. Ten gran cuenta con tu palabra i credito, que quien los pierde no tiene mas que perder. Juan Eusebio Niereniberg. El que responde antes de oir lo que le preguntan, se acredita de necio, i merece que le sonrojen. La muerte i la vida est an en manos de la lengua ; segun el uso que se ha- ga m de ella serdn los frutos.

La prodigalidad es el azote de las buenas costumbres ; es un jermen corruptor que emponzofia todos los sentimientos, que nos somete a las mas duras privaciones, que nos convierte en objetos de burla i desprecio ; en fin, es un manantial ina gotable de males domesticos, i a veces de horribles catastrofes. La pobreza no tiene armas contra el que sale conten- tarse con poco; el vicio no tiene prestijios a los ojos acos- tumbrados al sublime espectaculo de la virtud.

El fastidio no aburre jamas a quien sabe ocuparse; el vano aparato Ten gran cuenta con, 'be very careful of. No serza bella i perfecta una cosa, de cualquiera naturaleza que sea, si no fuera verdaderamente todo lo que debe ser. El orden social no es mas que una serie de sacrificios i de condescendencias. Obstinado el Gobernador de Nerva en no rendirse, entra- ron los Rusianos la Plaza por asalto. En fin, atajado el desorden, haciendo juntar en la Casa de ayuntamiento los principales ciudadanos, entro el, i poniendo su espada toda baiiada en sangre sobre una mesa, les dijo estas palabras : " No es sangre de los ciudada- nos de Nerva la de que estd tenido este acero, sino de mu- chos Rusianos, que he sacrificado a vuestra conservacion.

Mas la falta de esperiencia, la capacidad, aun no del todo formada, junto con el ardor de su vivisimo espiritu, le hacian oir con agrado, aquella idea de un ilimitado poder: al tiempo mismo, que el Mariscal de Etre, hombre anciano, de gran consejo i madurez, que se hallaba poco distante del rei, estaba escuchando a aquellos aduladores con suma indignacion. Prosiguiendo estos su asunto, trajeron a la conversacion el ejemplo de los Empera- dores Otomanos, refiriendo como aquellos monarcas son due- iios despoticos de las vidas i haciendas de sus vasallos.

Sacble maniatado de la tienda, donde le tenia, i se le presentb al padre, intimandole que si no rendta la plaza, le matarzan a su vista. Don Juan, brother to the king, who had in charge the oldest son of Guzman the Good, went over to the Moors and besieged Tarifa. He had Guzman's son brought before the ramparts of the castle, and told the father, that if he did not surrender, he would murder his son before his own eyes.

Don Juan did so ; but Guzman remained faithful to his trust. Si Don Juan le diese muerte, a mi dara gloria, a mi hijo verdadera vida, i a el eterna infamia en el mundo, i condenacion eterna despues de muerto. Sentbse a comer con su esposa, reprimiendo el dolor en el pecho, para que no saliese en el rostro. A lo que el rei replied, con el mismo sosiego : "Que conecsion tiene la bomba con lo que yo estoi dictando.

Grammar, se, Observation 2, p. Un dia, que aquel rei andaba 6 caza le encontro tanendo la flama, i guardando cabras en el monte. Por diversion le hizo algunas preguntas, i prendado de la vivacidad i agudeza con que responded el niiio, se le llevb consigo a palacio: donde habiendo mandado instruirle la rectitud de su corazon, i claridad de su injenio, ganaron la inclinacion del rei; de modo, que elevdndole prontamente de cargo en cargo, vino a cotocarle en el que ya se dijo, de mayordomo mayor.

Ordenole el principe que dentro de quince dias diese cuentas. A que Mahomet intrepido respo? Pero observando uno de los enemigos del valido la puerta de un cuarto cerrada, guarnecida con tres cadenas fuertes, se lo advirtib al rei, el cual le preguntb que tenia cerrado en aquel cuarto. Todo lo que hasta ahora se ha visto, es de V. Entrb el rei en el cuarto, i volviendo a todas partes los ojos, no vib otra cosa, sino las alhajas siguientes: una zamarra, una alforja, un cayado, i una flauta. Atonito las miraba el rei, cuando, ponie?

Solo esto conozco por mio. I pues que lo es, suplico con el mayor rendimiento a V. De este suceso resultb que Mahomet logrb despues cons tan tes la confianza i cariiio del principe toda su vida. Jeronirno Feijoo. Aun entonces oyeron con desprecio las condiciones propuestas por Anibal como indig- nas de su heroico valor i reputacion ; i creyendo mas decoroso vender su libertad i vidas al caro precio de la sangre de Car- tago, i caer como esforzados, antes que dejarse consumir del hambre, tomaron la magnamina resolucion de morir com- batiendo, i de sepultarse bajo las ruinas de su patria.

Encendieron en medio de la plaza una crecida hoguera; entregaron a las llamas sus alhajas mas preciosas ; i, aprove- chdndose de las sombras i silencio de la noche, hicieron el Constantes, 'constantly. At the beginning of the second century be- fore Christ, this city was invested in due form, by Annibal, at the head of , men. After a siege of eight months, provisions entirely failed at Saguntum, whose male inhabitants, rather than die with, or surrender through hunger, sallied forth to meet the enemy, while the females set the city on fire, killed their infants, and threw themselves into the flames.

The classic scholar has no doubt read in Livy a very interesting account of this memorable event. Sorprendieron al ejercito, le atacaron con furor i rabia, e hicieron horrible carniceria. El combate fue obsti- nado. Los Esparioles pelearon como leones, i solo ceso el estrago de los. Cartajineses cuando dejaron de vivir los Sa- guntinos. Asi perecib despues de ocho meses de sitio la celebre Sagunto, victima de su con- slancia i lealtad; dejando al vencedor por despojo un mon- ton de cenizas i un espantoso esqueleto de ciudad.

La memoria de su ruina sera perpetuamente gloriosa a los Espanoles. The subject is frequently placed in Spanish after the verb. En todas sus ac- ciones i discursos no se propuso otro objeto que hacemos bien, instruimos, consolamos, i damos ideas 6 esperanzas las mas capaces de satisfacer a nuestro deseo insaciable de grandeza i de felicidad.

Nada le aflijia, sino nuestros errores : nada le desagradaba, sino nuestros vicios: nada le daba placer, sino nuestras virtudes, i nada le consolaba tanto como recojer la oveja que se le perdta. Nunca se le vio verdaderamente contristado, sino cuando preveia nuestra obstinacion i las desgracias que nos debia acarrear. Haced reflecsion sobre lo que hizo, cuando yendo con sus discipulos a Jerusalem, predijo las calamidades procsimas de aquella rebelde i endurecida nacion.

Ved la ternura i sensi- bilidad con que las profetiza, los suspiros dolientes que eshala, el torrente de lagrimas que vierte. Vedle con la Cananea. En una de sus escursiones se le presenia una mujer estranjera i jentil, implora su socorro. Se resiste, porque parece que no estaba en el orden de su providencia empezar sino por las ovejas perdidas de Israel, Pero la infeliz con humildad i con f e redoMa sus instancias, repite sus ruegos con aquella hnportunidad que le agrada tanto, i su buen corazon, sin poder resistir mas, se rinde, le concede lo que pide, i la despacha consolada.

Hai quienes haciendose atar las manos en las es- paldas, llevan violentamente los brazos por sobre los hom- bros, estan padeciendo por mucho tiempo inmensos dolores, hasta que por ultimo pierden el uso de manos i brazos, quedando estos por el resto de su vida pendientes, como partes inanimadas.

Pero sus mas ordinarias mortificaciones son prolijos, i severisimos ayunos, con total abstinencia de comida i bebida, que los reduce a la apariencia de meros esqueletos. Los sectarios de Amida, se hacen encarcelar en unas ca- vernas, donde apenas tienen espacio para estar sentados, i donde no pueden respirar sino por un tubo, que tienen cuidado de conservar.

Alii se dejan morir de hambre tranquilamente, con la esperanza de que Amida vendrci a recibir su alma al salir del cuerpo. Otros, se colocan sobre las puntas de unas rocas altisimas, donde hai minas de azufre, de que a veces salen algunas llamas ; i alii estan invocando sin cesar la Deidad ; rogandole que acepte el sacrif icio de su vida, i luego Unas, quien, cual, este, are used often to express, 'some,' 'this one,' 'those, 5 'others,' as the sense may require; hai quienes, 'there are some who. Rara presuncion la del hombre, querer averiguar lo que estd por venir!

Cuanto esta estd mas ciega, tanto pretende que el entendimiento sea mas lince. Grande ceguera nuestra es abrazar con el deseo lo ilicito; perb aun mayor buscar con el discurso, lo impene- trable. Desde el celebro del hombre, a la rejion de los futures continjentes, no abrib camino alguno la naturaleza; i donde no hat senda, que guie al termino deseado, cualquiera rumbo que se tome, lleva al precipicio. Esta ambicion fue el vicioso orijen de tanta practica supersticiosa como invent dron los antiguos idolatras. Buscaban nolicia de lo venidero en los astros, en los cadaveres, en las piedras, en los troncos, en el acaso de las suertes, en los delirios de sueiios, en las entra- nas de las victimas, en las voces de los brutos.

Translation of «ordinario» into 25 languages

A toda la naturaleza preguntaban lo que hatea de suceder i creian oir la respuesta por mas que la hallaban sorda a la consulta. Viste el rico delicada olanda, i el pobre gruesa estopa; pero dime si hasta ahora diste quejarse algun pobre, de que la aspereza de la estopa, le ocasionaba al cuerpo alguna mo- lestia. Jlcabada De tanta practica supersticiosa, 'of so many a superstitious prac- tice,' the singular is used for the plural in both languages. Sin embargo, el rico tiene mucho mas que sentir en ella: ya la inclemencia del tiempo, ya la incornodidad de la posada, ya la dureza del lecho, ya la faita de regaio.

El pobre, hecho a todo, nada estrafia; i asi de nada se duele. XXXVI, note 1, p. Ho feel in it,' the journey. L"V, note 5, p. Entran en un edificio, que al primer golpe de vista los llena de gusto i admiracion. Bepdsanle luego eon atento ecsamen, i no kaU Ian que ni por su grandeza, ni por la copia de luz, ni por la preciosidad del material, ni por la ecsacta observancia de las reglas de arquitectura csceda, ni aun acaso iguale a otros que kan visto sin tener que gustar 6 que admirar en ellos.

Piensa en los pecados que has hecho, i haces cada clia r despues que abrisle los ojos al conocimiento de Dios ; i hai- lards que todavia vive en ti Adan con muchas de las raices i costumbres antiguas. Mira, cuan descarado eres para con Dios, cuan ingrato a sus beneficios, cuan rebelde a sus inspi- raciones, cuan perezoso para las cosas de su servicio , Consider a cuan duro eres para con el projimo, i cuan piadoso para contigo: cuan aniigo de tw piopia voluntad, i de El sentido, 'our senses.

Mir a como todavia eres soberbio, airado, subito, vanaglorioso, envidioso, malicioso, regalado, mudable, liviano, sensual, amigo de tus recreaciones i conversaciones, risas i palerias. Mira, otrosi cuan inconstante eres en los buenos propositos, cimn inconsi- derado en tus palabras, cuan desproveido en tus obras, i cuan cobarde i pusilanime para cualesquier graves negocios. Considera ya por esta orden la muchedumbre de tus peca- dos, considera luego la graved ad de ellos, para que veas como por todas partes es crecida tu miseria, Para lo cual debes primeramente consider ar: contra quien pecaste; i hallards que pecaste contra Dios, cuya bondad i majestad es infmita, i cuyos beneficios i misericordias para con el hombre, sobre- pujan las arenas del mar i Asi se paga aquella sangre preciosa que se derramb en la cruz?

Luis de Granada. Vemos que entre las cosas criadas, unas hai honestas, otras hermosas, otras provechosas, otras agraclables, i otras con otras perfecciones. Entre estas tanto suele una ser mas per- fecta i mas digna de ser amada, cuanto mas cle estas perfec- ciones participa. Pues, segun esto, i cuanto merece ser amada la virtud, en quien todas estas perfecciones se hallcm? It might just as well be left out ; if it were not that it seems to fill up the period better, and give it a more harmonious rotundity.

In similar instances we frequently find these pronominal objectives used, apparently against the rules of grammar. Here the indicative, and not the subjunctive, as in Spanish, is required in English. He made f Bob, helen, violet, dash, Jack-jack, superhero family tshirt, Undermine, incredib, Dad tshirt, fatherday tshirt, Mr. Incredible, Mrs. Book annotation not available for this title. The following content was provided by the publisher.

As a father he took his kids on a Every Sk HTC Droid Incredible car charger will charge your phone and provides unlimited talk time while in the car. The following is the key-note lecture that was delivered by Dr. Brothers and sisters. I come here before you to express my opposition to the Islamic State.

I do not back the Islamic State. I do not stand for the Islamic State. I do not defend the Islamic State. And I would not kill and die for the Islamic State. I am sure you are all pleasantly relieved that I come in peace. Now that you are at ease, please allow me to clarify the difference between an Islamic State and an Islamic Ummah.

The Islamic State is a misnomer. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, never, ever, described his system as a dawlah, a khilafah, a sultanah, a jumhuriyyah or a dimukratiyyah; he never described his system as a State, a Caliphate, a Sultanate, a Republic or a Democracy. On the contrary, he described it as an Ummah, a Motherland, a Homeland, a Federation or a Confederation. These are the very freedoms that the Prophet granted in his Covenants. Self-professed Islamists and self-professed Jihadists have been supposedly fighting to create a so-called Islamic State for over a century.

More than mere ignorance, such behavior is indicative of hypocrisy and dishonesty. Imagine the paradox: a person fighting for Socialism who is not familiar with the Communist Manifesto; a person fighting for human rights who is not familiar with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; a person who is fighting for democracy who is not familiar with the American Constitution. Al-Dustur al-Madinah. Al-Sahifah al-Madinah. The Ummah Document.

The Constitution of Madinah. The Covenant of Madinah.

However, if I mention the Covenant of Madinah, most Muslims have never heard of it; and virtually no non-Muslims have ever heard of it. Fortunately, as a result of the publication of The Covenants of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World in , the proclamation of the Marrakesh Declaration in , and its endorsement by the Organization for Islamic Cooperation, Muslims are becoming increasingly aware of the Covenant, Constitution or Charter of Madinah.

Let me take you back years. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, receives revelation. He is persecuted for a decade. He flees with his followers from Makkah to Madinah. At that time, there were approximately twenty or thirty thousand people living in and around Madinah: half of them were Jewish and half of them were polytheists. The Muslims, however, only numbered in the hundreds. However, they all accepted the Prophet as their leader.

Did the Prophet kill all the non-Muslims? No, not at all. In fact, the first thing that he did after arriving in Madinah was to protect the rights of all the citizens of his newly-formed Ummah. He prepared a Constitution for his Commonwealth in consultation with all of his constituents; the first political charter in history. So, what is so special about al-Sahifah al-Madinah? What is the gist of the Covenant of Madinah? This is a document from Muhammad, the Prophet [governing the relations] between the believers and Muslims… and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them.

They are one community [ummatun wahidah] to the exclusion of others. According to the Constitution of Madinah, identity is not based on race, religion, kinship, class, gender, or tribal affiliation: it is based on membership in the Ummah. It is what we call today citizenship. He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be aided. The Jews must bear their expenses and the Muslims their expenses.

Each must help the other against anyone who attacks the people of this document. They must seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery. Islam was preeminent, extending wings of mercy upon all those it embraced, be they Jews, Christians, polytheists, Zoroastrians, agnostics, or even atheists. They were all included in one Ummah. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, granted Covenants of Protection throughout his prophetic mission, from the early years of his calling to the last years of his life.

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He granted them freedom of conscience, freedom of belief, and freedom of religious practice. He protected their religious establishments and prohibited forced conversions. As the Messenger of Allah repeated over and over again:. It is not permitted to remove a bishop from his bishopric or a Christian from his Christianity, a monk from his monastic life or a pilgrim from his pilgrimage or a hermit monk from his tower.

Nor is it permitted to destroy any part of their churches, to take parts of their buildings to construct mosques or the homes of Muslims. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, described Christians as his flock and viewed himself as their shepherd. As we read in the Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Samaritans:. I, Muhammad b. We also pledge to behave with them and the people of Palestine in the best possible manner. Yours is the safeguard of Allah and that of his Messenger with regard to your persons, belief, and property… You shall not have the annoyance of land-tax, nor shall a forelock of yours be cut off… No army shall tread on your soil, nor shall you be assembled [for military service], nor shall tithes be imposed on you, neither shall you be injured in any way….

The mercy of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, was not limited to Muslims and the People of the Book. It extended to other faith communities as well. Take, for example, the Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Zoroastrians which was granted to the brother of Salman al-Farsi, may Allah be pleased with him. It reads:. He has the protection of Allah and so do his sons over their lives and their wealth … without ever having to suffer injustice or be subject to harm…. I have removed from you that a forelock of yours shall be cut off, to wear clothing that differentiates you from the rest of the people, and the jizyah, and this until [the day] of the gathering and dispersal.

Their hands are free to do as they please concerning their fire temples and its wealth. No one should prevent them from… carrying out their funeral processions, and to abide by what they normally abide by concerning their religion and sect. The Zoroastrians priests should be granted exclusive privileges from among the various sects of those people who are protected [by the Muslims]. As can be appreciated from these prophetic traditions, the Messenger of Allah did not simply ask Muslims to tolerate the People of the Book: he commanded his followers to engage with them, dialogue with them, and love them as fellow human beings.

He called upon Muslims to protect them and defend them. It is what we call pluralism, the energetic engagement with diversity; the practical and concrete application of human rights. I believe in the Ummah of Muhammad, the Confederation of Believers that is based on the Covenant of Madinah and the Covenants of the Prophet; an Ummah based on justice, tolerance, and diversity. He was a Messenger of God. He was the Seal of the Prophets. He did not preach a new religion; he preached the primordial religion, Islam, submission and surrender to the One and Only God, the Creator and Sustainer of the Universe.

Islam is a complete way of life. Unlike the prophets and messengers who preceded him and unlike the founders of other faith traditions, which focus on governing themselves, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, also focused on how Muslims should interact with others. If one reads the Old Testament, and one study the Halakha, one sees that that Jewish Law was concerning primarily with regulating the lives of Jewish people. If one reads the New Testament, and studies Canon Law, one sees that Christian law was concerned primarily with regulating the lives of Christian people.

There is little in the Judeo-Christian tradition regarding the rights of non-Jews and non-Christians. There is little with regards to the manner we should treat different faith communities. Islam, however, came to the scene with an entirely novel and unique approach: pluralism. Unlike many other religions that insisted that salvation was for them and them alone, Islam insisted that salvation was within the reach of all righteous monotheists.

So long as one believed in God, and one did good deeds and avoided evil deeds, one had hope in the mercy of Almighty God. Surely those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last day and does good, they shall have their reward from their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve. I have studied Islam for over three decades. I too was taught that only Muslims were believers and that only Muslims went to Heaven.

I was taught that Christians were mushrikin or polytheists. I was taught that the People of the Book were kuffar or infidels who were destined to eternal damnation in Hell. I can assert, openly, and unabashedly, that the extremist, fundamentalist, exclusivist, absolutist, fascist and supremacist interpretation of Islam is false. It represents a re-invention of Islam. It is not the Islam of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs. It is not the Islam of the Prophet Muhammad. When the Messenger of Allah established himself in Madinah, he consulted with Jews, Muslims, and polytheists, and created a constitution, the first of its kind in the political history of humanity.

Known as the Covenant of Madinah, it placed all citizens on equal footing with equal rights and obligations.

Muhammad’s Covenants with the Christian Community

The citizens of the city-state of Madinah consisted of Jews and Arab non-Muslims. They numbered in the tens of thousands. Nonetheless, the Prophet proclaimed that they were a ummah wahidah, a single community, a constitutional confederation. And this makes perfect logical sense: anyone who believes in God is a believer.

When the Messenger of Allah referred to his followers, those who embraced Islam, he used the term muslimin or Muslims. The Prophet spearheaded a movement of believers and created a Confederation of Believers. They were the leaders of all the citizens of the Ummah. And we have sent down the Book to you [Muhammad] with truth, confirming and conserving the previous Books.

So judge between them by what God has sent down and do not follow their whims and desires deviating from the Truth that has come to you. We have appointed a law and a practice for every one of you. Had God willed, He would have made you a single community, but He wanted to test you regarding what has come to you.

So compete with each other in doing good. And every one of you will return to God and He will inform you regarding the things about which you differed. This is pluralism plain and simple, a condition or system in which various groups, principles, sources of authority or religious traditions co-exist in respect and tolerance. It is pluralism as defined by Diana L.

Eck: energetic engagement with diversity; active seeking of understanding across lines of difference; encounter of commitments; and the language of dialogue. One day, when the Prophet Muhammad was in Madinah, a delegation of Christians visited him from Najran. They debated and discussed religious matters. They agreed on some issues. They disagreed on other issues.

When it came time for the Christians to perform their prayers, they excused themselves to leave the mosque. The Prophet Muhammad insisted that they pray in his mosque as it was a place of prayer and a house of God. And so the Christians prayed and celebrated mass in the mosque of the Prophet. This event is meticulously documented in Muslim sources. Not only is it authentic, it is exemplary. It is the very embodiment of Islamic ethics. Compare that to the actions of ISIS. There are two visions of Islam that confront us today: an Islam of peace, mercy, tolerance, love, equality, and justice; and an Islam of war, cruelty, intolerance, hatred, inequality, and injustice; an Islam of terrorism, bloodshed, violence, misogyny, and bigotry.

Forgive me if I have enough sense of decency and humanity to side with the former, True Islam, and repudiate all those who side with the latter which is nothing less than Anti-Islam. Muslims, true Muslims, must agree to disagree, not only with non-Muslims, but with each other. Had Allah willed, He would have made us all the same.

He did not decree uniformity by means of barbarity, like ISIS wants to impose, but diversity and plurality under the wings of mercy. O humankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. It calls upon different religious traditions to defer their differences to the ultimate judgment of God.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, never converted people by force. Consequently, the Messenger of Allah invited people to Islam. If they accepted Islam, alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah. The Prophet was perfectly clear on the subject. If a Jew or a Christian becomes a Muslim, he is a believer with his rights and obligations. He who holds fast to his religion, Jew or Christian, is not to be turned from it. The Prophet of Islam did not cause anyone distress throughout his life.

He would present his belief before the people, accepting anyone who came to him, [yet] not compelling one who did not. If the People of the Book did not wish to embrace Islam, Almighty Allah called upon them to follow their scripture firmly. This is exactly what the Messenger of Allah did.

And that is precisely what the Rightly-Guided Caliphs did. Question me before you lose me. Question me, for I have the knowledge of those who came earlier and those who will come later. If the cushion on which a judge sits was folded for me to sit on , I could give judgements to the people of the Torah by their Torah, to the people of the Gospels by their Gospels, to the people of Psalms by their Psalms and to the people of the Furqan i.

It is a religion that soothes the soul. It is a religion that satisfies the intellect with certainty. It is a religion based on ethics and morality. It is a religion of piety and righteousness. It is a religion that provides people with rights as opposed to depriving people of rights. It is a religion of personal growth and development; a religion of social justice. According to Jewish and Christian tradition, a thousand years after Abraham, the Jewish people were slaves, locked in perpetual servitude in Egypt before being led to freedom by Moses.

On their epic trek to Palestine, Moses broke the journey in the area around Mount Sinai. It was at its peak that Moses received from God a set of covenants, or laws, etched into clay tablets. These 10 Commandments became the foundation for a moral existence. Catherine, a year-old Christian abbey at the base of Mount Sinai. Though not commanding the recipients to honor their mother and father or desist in the creation of idols, the covenant from the Prophet Muhammad did something unheard of in the annals of history — it promised to protect the Christian monks and residents of the region from any incursions, attacks, or efforts to take over the Christian pilgrimage site.

It swore to protect the monks singularly and as a group wherever they were. Further, the contract vowed to allow all inhabitants to keep the religion of their choice. Still a teen, Morrow continued to research Islam through dozens of texts, and he came across an 18th-century text written by Richard Pococke which described and translated parts of the treaty the Prophet Muhammad had initiated with the Monks of Mount Sinai.

Sinai and over a dozen other, similar documents, had receded from religious consciousness over the centuries and were squirreled away amid thousands of other papers in libraries scattered around Europe and the Middle East. Morrow, Muslims now have an additional rigorously authenticated religious resource — the detailed Ashtiname — peace letters or covenants spoken by the Prophet and written down verbatim.

Through dictation and diplomacy, the Muhammad formulated treaties with most of the religious communities on the Arabian Peninsula and beyond. Some of the major covenants include:. Over just a few years, the Islamic Ummah, or nation, expanded widely, until it gradually encompassed territory that included peoples of various sects.

Beyond protection, these covenants outlined forbidden actions, that is acts which the Muslims in these areas were prohibited from initiating. The rights and privileges granted to the Christians of Najran, a place in what is now southern Saudi Arabia where Christianity took root in the 4th century, are mirrored in most of the other treaties as well:. It applies to those who are present as well as those who are absent.

There shall be no interference with the practice of their faith or their religious observances. There will be no change to their rights and privileges. No bishop shall be removed from his bishopric; no monk from his monastery, and no priest from his parish. They shall all continue to enjoy everything they previously enjoyed great or small. No image or cross shall be destroyed. They will not oppress or be oppressed. In covenants written for general societies, unlike the abbey on Mount Sinai which was an exclusively male population, Muhammad added previously unheard-of rights for women:.

Morrow hopes to reach and influence Muslims who may not be aware of the more global and far-reaching intentions of the Prophet and Christians who may have relied too heavily on the one-faceted view of Islam promulgated by the media. Invited to speak at conferences, churches, mosques, and institutions from Dubai to California, Dr. Morrow seeks to restore the trajectory of benevolent statecraft instituted by the Prophet Muhammed over years ago.

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Mezquita de Sevilla 19 marzo, Ha sido transmitido por musulmanes y no musulmanes durante casi un milenio y medio. Haddad :. Esta es una carta escrita por Mohammed, Ibn Abdullah, el Mensajero, el Profeta y el Creyente, que ha sido enviado a todos los pueblos como una fideicomiso de parte de Dios a todas Sus criaturas, para que no puedan declararse en contra de Dios en lo sucesivo. Verdaderamente Dios es Omnipotente, el Sabio. No deben dar nada de su ingreso sino lo que les agrada, no deben ser ofendidos, molestados, forzados ni obligado. A nadie se le permite saquear a estos cristianos, o destruir o estropear cualquiera de sus iglesias o casas de culto, o tomar cualquiera de las cosas contenidas en estas casas y llevarlas a las casas del Islam.

Nadie tiene el derecho de interferir con sus asuntos, o iniciar acciones en su contra. Sus iglesias deben ser honradas y no se les debe impedir construir iglesias o reparar conventos. No deben ser obligados a portar armas o piedras; pero los musulmanes deben protegerlos y defenderlos contra otros. I have seen with great passion the work of this brother and researcher, Dr. John Andrew Morrow, on the prophetic covenants and charters with the protected people from the People of the Book. Although Islam itself is spotless, minds have become confused when it comes to historical figures and facts.

Consequently, many wonder about the nature of the relationship between Islam and other religions. Is it peace or is it war? There is no doubt that the scholars of Islam and its religious leaders know that God sent His Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, as a mercy to the worlds. The fact of the matter is that such long-standing covenants and charters almost fell into oblivion.

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did not kill any of the hypocrites. People should be judged on their professed beliefs. Nobody has the right to judge people on their appearance or to judge what is in their hearts and use it as a pretext to spread blood and commit murder. This is because Islam has come with truth from the Lord to protect human souls from harm in this world and the hereafter. In conclusion, the release of these Covenants, which were concluded with the leaders of Christian communities, monks, priests, and bishops, is visible evidence that Islam is a religion that seeks and calls to co-exist in peace and security with members of other faiths, that justice, goodness, and safety are the highest of human goals, that people have the right to live in dignity and peace, that people should be free from religious coercion, and that no one should be deprived of protection.

I ask Allah, the Exalted, to bless this effort and maximize its benefit throughout the world, to thank and reward the researcher, and to open other avenues of exploration for him in this impactful field. The Jews of Islam were not persecuted… they were given full religious liberty, were able to run their affairs according to their laws, and were more able than the Jews of Europe to participate in mainstream culture and commerce. In all his treaties with Christians he invariably guaranteed their liberty of worship.

This is a letter from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Haninah and the people of Khaybar and Maqna and their progeny as long as the heavens are above the earth, peace. I praise unto you Allah, save whom there is no god but He. Now [I say that] he has revealed unto me that you are about to return to your cities and to the inhabitants of your dwelling-place. Return in safety, in the protection of Allah and that of his Messenger.

Yours is the safeguard of Allah and that of his Messenger with regard to your persons, belief, and property, slaves, and whatever is in your possession. You shall not have the annoyance of land-tax, nor shall a forelock of yours be cut off. No army shall tread on your soil, nor shall you be assembled [for military service], nor shall tithes be imposed on you, neither shall you be injured in any way.

No one shall leave his mark on you, you shall not be prevented from wearing slashed or colored garments, nor from riding on horseback, nor from carrying any kind of arms. If anyone attacks you, fight him, and if he is killed in the war against you, none of you shall be executed for his sake nor is ransom to be paid for him.

If one of you kill a Muslim intentionally, he shall be dealt with according to Muslim law. No disgraceful charges shall be brought against you, and you shall not be as other [non-Muslim] poll-tax payers. If you ask assistance, it shall be granted to you, and if you want help you shall have it.

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You shall not be punished for white, nor yellow, nor brown garments , nor for a coat of mail, nor […] Not a shoe-lace of yours shall be cut. You shall not be hindered entering the mosques, nor precluded from governing Muslims. You shall have no other ruler except out of your own midst, or from the Family of the Messenger of Allah. Room shall be made for your funerals, except when they trespass on a sacred spot mosque. It shall be incumbent upon the people of the house of the Messenger of Allah and upon the Muslims to uphold your honor, and not to touch you. If any of you goes on a journey, he shall be under the safeguard of Allah and his Messenger.

If any of you follows the religion of the Messenger of Allah and his command, he shall have one fourth of what the Messenger of Allah has ordered to be given to the People of his House, to be given when the Quraysh receive their portions, viz. This is a present from me for you.

The Family of the House of the Messenger of Allah and all the Muslims are charged to fulfill all that is in this letter. Whoever deserves well of Haninah and the people of Khaybar and Maqna, all the better for him; but he who does them evil, all the worse for him. Whoever reads this my letter, or to whomever it is read, and he alters or changes anything of what is in it, upon him shall be the curse of Allah and the curse of the cursing of all humankind.

He is beyond my protection and intercession on the day of Resurrection, and I am his foe. And who is my foe is the foe of Allah, and he who is the foe of Allah goes to hell […] and bad is the abode there. The Witness is Allah, like whom there is no God, and Allah is sufficient as a witness, and his angels, and those Muslims who are present.

Ce sont les musulmans orthodoxes. Ce ne sont pas des musulmans orthodoxes. Je le fais tout le temps et je suis un musulman pratiquant. Combien de personnes ont entendu parler de la Fatwa contre le terrorisme et les attentats-suicides? Combien de personnes ont entendu parler de la Fatwa de Bin Bayyah? Combien de personnes ont entendu parler de Nahdlatul Ulama? Combien de personnes ont entendu parler de la Fatwa de masse contre Daech? Crescent International March 1, In light of the war crimes and cultural genocide committed by takfiri terrorists in Libya, Syria, Iraq, and elsewhere, in which masjids, graves, shrines, mausoleums, and churches have been destroyed, what do the letters, treaties, and covenants of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh , have to say about the preservation of heritage sites — religious, cultural, and historical?

This is something truly significant. But what exactly does it mean to protect Christian believers? The Prophet pbuh , provides the definition. What is more, he encouraged Muslims to help Christians repair their churches, chapels, and monasteries. But for what reason, you may ask. The relationship is reciprocal. It can help seal a fraternal understanding. That is how you build bonds of brotherhood and sisterhood. That is how you promote social cohesion, tolerance, and coexistence.

That is how you unite a diverse community. That is how you honor the signs of God. Is there any territorial limitation to such obligations of protection of both persons and property? Absolutely not. As the Messenger of Allah pbuh explains, it applies. The Messenger of Allah pbuh was not establishing municipal law, state law, or federal rights: he was establishing universal human rights. In fact, he was the very first to do so in the history of humanity.


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  6. The rights he gave, he gave to all the world. In the Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World, which was rediscovered in a monastery in the Levant in the 17th century by Father Pacifique de Provins, and published in Paris by Gabriel Sionita, the Messenger of Allah pbuh declares,.

    I grant security to their churches, their places of pilgrimage wherever they are and wherever they may be found, be they in the mountains or the valleys, in the caves or inhabited regions, in the plains or the desert, or in buildings; and that I protect their religion and their property wherever they are and wherever they may be found in land or at sea, in the East or West, in the same way that I protect myself, my successors, and the People of My Community among the Believers and the Muslims Morrow, vol.

    In the Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World, which was copied in Egypt in from an ancient manuscript, the Messenger of Allah pbuh states,. I grant security to them, their churches, their businesses, their houses of worship, the places of their monks, the places of their pilgrims, wherever they may be found, be they in the mountains or the valleys, caves or inhabited regions, the plains or the desert Morrow, vol.

    He also states that Muslims must help and support Christians if they seek their assistance to repair their churches and convents Morrow, vol. He stresses that they should only do so to restore that religion, out of faithfulness to the Covenant of the Prophet, as a pure good deed, and as a blessed act before God and His Messenger Morrow, vol. In other words, not only are Muslims required to respect, protect, and preserve religious institutions of other faiths, they are obliged to rebuild any of them that were destroyed.

    I grant security and safety to their churches, their homes, their places of worship, their monasteries, their sites of pilgrimage, wherever they are and wherever they may be, be they in mountains or valleys, in caves or inhabited regions, in plains or in the desert and buildings Morrow, vol. We see the very same thing in the Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Armenian Christians, in which he says,. I safeguard them and remove all harm from them and from their churches, cloisters, convents, and places of worship, wherever they may be found, by they in mountains, valleys, caves, inhabited regions or in the plains Morrow, vol.

    This version is particularly interesting since it speaks not only of existing structures, but to ancient churches. Protection, therefore, is not limited to modern, contemporary, buildings, but also applies to those of historical importance. He lost his father four months before his birth. His mother passed away when he was six. Two years later he lost the paternal grandfather who cared for him.

    After that, he was raised by his paternal uncle. The society in which Muhammad grew up was devoid of political organization. People were divided into warring tribes. Tribalism, racism, and prejudice were rampant. The rich exploited the poor. The powerful enslaved the weak. Women were viewed as sexual objects and treated as chattel. They could be brutalized without mercy. With the exception of small numbers of Jews and Christians, along with the monotheistic Hanifs and a segment of Zoroastrians, the overwhelming majority of the population was pagan, animistic, idolatrous, and polytheistic.

    Unlike the Hindus, however, the Arab idolaters did not believe in life after death or reincarnation. Their real religion, however, was materialism and hedonism. If Arabia lived in darkness, the situation outside of the Peninsula was hardly brighter. Besides waging war with one another directly, they also opposed one another by means of proxies. Growing up, the young orphan was drawn to nature where he contemplated the wonders of creation.

    After marrying his first wife, Khadijah, he started to spend long period of time in the seclusion of a cave on the outskirts of Mecca where he sought spiritual solace and a solution to the problems afflicting his society. After years of seeking, Muhammad received revelation and an answer to all his questions. The Prophet Muhammad preached that God was One.

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    This belief in unity was the be all and end all of Islam and would pervade all of its aspects. Since God was One it signified that Humanity was one. He called for an end to racism, tribalism, classism, and sexism. He insisted that all human beings were created equal and that superiority could only be attained by striving for piety. He condemned the evils of slavery and advocated on behalf of slaves of every race, religion, and ethnicity. He sided with the meek, oppressed, and downtrodden.

    He taught that greatness was not in having but in giving and, in turn, gave all of his wealth away to help the poor. The Prophet Muhammad called for the emancipation of women and demanded that they be treated with love, honor, respect, and dignity. He denounced the sacrifice of children to pagan gods and the burying alive of baby girls. Although the Prophet gained a solid following among the wretched of the earth, he was opposed by the elites of the age who viewed his unitarian and egalitarian vision as a threat to their selfish interests.

    The tribal leaders tried to buy him. When that failed, they tried to get him to compromise on matters of principle. When that failed, they tried to pressure him economically. When that failed, they resorted to intimidation, violence, and isolation. Having exhausted all avenues, the leaders of Mecca attempted to have him assassinated.