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He is the Dante who "saw everything. He is one to whom all the changing passions of man's nature, his doubts and misgivings, the subtle changefulness of his moods, his strange despondency, his remorse, the liberation of his spirit into joy, were worthy of the deepest reflection. Stories of human life, the quiet comedy, the startling tragedy, and the incident of unspeakable pathos, are embedded in his great poem; strange and heart-moving tales are told or hinted at in a few unforgetable words. When we study it more deeply, the poem, we find, is full of erudition.

Whatever was to be known in the learning of his times Dante knew; but, though the poem is full of erudition, it is free from pedantry. Weaker minds than his would have been encumbered by their learning; vainer minds than his would have debased their art by a vulgar ripple of ostentatious scholarship; but Dante is master of his learning; he does not clumsily drag it along with him; he uses it easily and skilfully as one who has proved it; he carries it as a warrior carries his weapon.

He is saved from the calamitous. He delights us because, though he dwells upon exalted themes, though he has an eye that pierces heaven, and an ear which can hear celestial melodies and words unspeakable, he maintains a right and level judgment. His robust good sense seldom, if ever, deserts him. He is a standing refutation of the theorists who would have us believe that genius is allied to insanity. Like all those who belong to the first rank of genius-like Shakespeare, Milton, Goethe, he possesses what Professor Dowden aptly calls a "large and wholesome sanity. He seldom lets his judgment go.

He has, for example, a zeal for right thinking in matters of belief, but he stands firm upon the ethical basis of faith. He has a reverence for the Church of God, but he opens his eyes wide to real evils. None spoke so clearly or solemnly against the corruptions of his times; none repudiated so completely the validity of mere official pardons.

He can recognize the value and need of discipline, but he sees clearly that man is incapable of finally judging of man Par. He dislikes the extravagant and obstinate pride of consistency. Jephtha had better have said " Mal feci " than have kept his rash vow Par. He hates the narrowness and nascent injustice of partizanship Par. Thus Dante's sound level sense holds its place in his great work. His greatness is the greatness, not of great imaginative gifts alone, nor of great erudition alone, nor of sound judgment alone, nor of musical expression alone; but.

This means a genius which can handle with a master hand the materials at his command. His art is not baffled by reluctant matter. To Dante " la materia" non " e sorda. For this there must be the personal human element. This personal element makes itself felt in the poem. For many readers the sweet human element constitutes the charm of the Divine Comedy. Sainte-Beuve acknowledged that the passages which awakened the quickest response in his heart were those which expressed the dear, tender, instinctive affection of Beatrice guiding and watching over the poet-traveller. These touches of simple human feeling appeal to the individual heart.

But these alone, sweet and delicate as they are, would never have given to the Divine Comedy its lasting and far-reaching interest. There is a personal element in the poem deeper than a dear human friendship-deeper and more eternal. The poem is the journey of a soul: it is the journey of one not seeking adventure but meeting it in the search for truth.

It is the story of the discipline of a much tried and much troubled man. The great " I " of personal experience gives piquancy, depth and fascination to the Divine Comedy. In this it is like Bunyan's great allegory that, beneath the form of the narrative, we may read the story of a travailing soul.

The great and. Over the man Dante the heavenly powers watched in sweet and loving solicitude Inf. He must be quickened with the mysterious and heavenly impulse Par. We meet in the poem a wide range of subjects-historical, philosophical, theological-but the main thread of its purpose is never lost sight of. The personal element in the story continues to the close.

As we move from the Inferno to the Purgatorio, and pass on to the Paradiso, we read the record of the wandering, the awakening, the disciplining, and the emancipation of a soul. The poem is the Pilgrim's Progress of the middle ages. Dante had experiences of life and people, and he expresses these with wondrous force and magnificent elaboration, but there are lessons which he wishes to teach.

Beyond all else there are some deep truths which he yearns to tell. Compared with these soul truths, all the rest of his poem-to use the comparison which, as Mr. Warren Vernon reminds us, Benvenuto da Imola employed-consists. The Divine gleam of truth is the discovery of the way man may attain to the true knowledge of himself and of God; and it is not till the Paradiso is reached that this discovery is fully made. The Inferno is the best-known portion of Dante's great poem: the Paradiso is the least known. There are attractions around the Inferno which cannot be claimed for the Paradiso.

There is a sense in which evil and its consequences are more interesting to us than good and its fruit. The story of the wicked leaves more opening for dramatic fascination than the story of the final rest and peace of the good. The steeps of the Purgatorio are thronged with those who, in their struggles and aspirations, are more akin to ourselves than the quiet saints and stately doctors of the Paradiso.

But no reader can claim to understand Dante who does not go with him into the Paradiso. Here, if anywhere, we need the moral preparedness which is indispensable to the deeper apprehension of the Poet's meaning. Dante himself warns off flippant and worldly-minded readers. Only those sustained by heavenly strength can wisely follow. Voi altri pochi, che drizzaste il collo Per tempo al pan degli Angeli, del quale Vivesi qui, ma non sen vien satollo, Metter potete ben per 1' alto sale Vostro navigio. The visions here disclosed cannot be told in the lan. We are not surprised therefore to find ourselves in the midst of altered conditions.

The toil of the Purgatorio is left behind: there progress was effort; in the Paradiso it is no longer due to human exertion, but to a Divine impulse: the traveller has but to surrender himself to the happy conditions around him, and a celestial power carries him on. To move upwards is now as natural to the transfigured pilgrim as the fall of water downward was natural on earth: Non dei piu ammirar, se bene estimo, Lo tuo salir, se non come d' un rivo Se d' alto monte scende giuso ad imo. The power thus to enter the new conditions depends upon the change in the pilgrim.

The man with the risen soul can rise. The spiritualized being mounts instinctively Godward, drawn by that love to which it bears such sweet and strong affinity:S' io era sol di me quel che creasti Novellamente, Amor che il ciel governi, Tu il sai, che col tuo lume mi levasti. The pilgrim so transfigured can traverse the wonderful realm that is full of light, music and smiles. Light dwells there: and the light of that day is sevenfold: but it is light which displays itself in such sweet.

There is rest there, but it is not stagnation: it is the active rest of happily harmonized powers. There is music there: the air thrills with it, but it never bewilders: it steals upon the ear in modulated and well-discriminated harmony. Everywhere the heaven seems to smile:Ci6 ch' io vedeva mi sembrava un riso Dell' universo- Par. This is not surprising, for it is the realm where love apparels itself in smiles:O dolce amor, che di riso t' ammanti.

And all things there take on an outward beauty, because filled with the pure love and unalloyed goodness which is at the heart of things. This is the region into which Mr. Warren Vernon seeks to lead his readers: as a help to which he has made this new contribution to the literature of Dante.

Dante literature, in the view of an eminent publisher, is now so voluminous in England that no new book has a reasonable prospect of success, unless it has either a great name or exceptional intrinsic merit to recommend it. The problem to-day is not to find a good book on Dante, but to choose one: selection, not discovery, is the difficulty which confronts the student.

In this task Mr. Warren Vernon comes to help us. He brings the two con. He bears a name long known and reverenced by Dante students, both for his father's sake and his own. Few men have devoted more time to his self-chosen task: few have laboured more patiently and modestly to guide the footsteps of students.

Mina (Italian singer)

The value of his works is not merely in the careful and loyal devotion which they display: it lies also in the happy art with which he labours. He is a teacher, earnest to make his pupils understand what they are reading. The student is not allowed to be slipshod; difficulties are not ignored: they are faced and discussed, but discussion never degenerates into prolix disquisition; the course and movement of the poem is not forgotten in a desultory excursion into side issues; the reader is being constantly brought back to the mid-stream of the Poet's thought.

And when some of us, who have long been students of Dante, remember the character and quality of the books which awaited the beginner a quarter of a century ago, we are tempted to be envious of the young student of to-day, who can make his first excursion into the realms which Dante opens, under the well-skilled and enthusiastic guidance of Mr.

William Warren Vernon, who in these pages gives us the fruits of the long diligence with which he has studied the Poet's works. O degli altri poeti onore e lume, Vagliami il lungo studio e il grande amore Che m' ha fatto cercar lo tuo volume. THE whole system of cosmography, upon which Dante based his visionary journey through the three regions of departed spirits, is so knit together, that it is not easy to avoid repetition in treating of it as applied to one region only. I find myself, therefore, compelled to repeat pp. Before readers of the Divina Commedia can form a just comprehension of the many allusions Dante makes to the structure of the universe, it is necessary for them to have some notion of the system of cosmography that prevailed in his days.

This was known xxix. To this system Dante added certain creations of his own, and we shall find that he has linked the astronomical, or, as they were then called, the astrological, doctrines of the Schoolmen with an allegorical system that is mainly the fruit of his own imagination. The Earth is supposed to be stationary in the centre of the universe, and the planets to revolve round it, within concentric spheres, and in the following order: i the Moon; ii Mercury; iii Venus; iv the Sun; v Mars; vi Jupiter; and vii Saturn.

In addition to these seven spheres, there are three others still more vast, namely, viii the Starry Heaven; ix the Primum Mobile or Cielo Cristallino; and last of all x the Empyrean, or Cielo Quieto. Besides these, there are two spheres supposed to belong to the Earth itself, namely, the Sphere of Air, and the Sphere of Fire. The Empyrean, or Cielo Quieto, is motionless, but the other nine spheres revolve in their respective orbits, their movements being directed by as many choirs of Angels, whom Dante styles Intelligenze Celesti, and who are of a greater or less hierarchical order, corresponding to the precedence of that particular sphere of heaven which they set in motion.

Quegli altri amor, che intorno a lor vonno, Si chiaman Troni L' altro ternaro, che cosi germoglia Prima Dominazioni, e poi Virtudi; L' ordine terzo di Podestadi ee. Poscia nei due penultimi tripudi Principati ed Arcangeli si girano; L' ultimo e tutto d' Angelici ludi. We shall see in it that the sciences of the Trivium and the Quadrivium, the philosophical and the theological sciences, are severally represented in the ten separate heavens which in their concentric orbits surrounded the earth.

The Sphere of Fire. The Heaven of the Moon 2. The Stellar Heaven 9. The Crystalline Heaven, or Primum Mobile o1. Astrology Natural Science. Moral Science. The general characteristics of each planetary heaven, and its occupants, are as follow:The First Heaven, moved by Angels Angeli , emblematical of Grammar Grammatica , is that of the waxing and waning Moon, and is tenanted by Spirits, whose wills were imperfect through Instability, and failed to keep their holy vows Spiriti Votivi Mancanti.

The Second Heaven, moved by Archangels Arcangeli , emblematical of Logic Dialettica , is that of Mercury, "more veiled from the Sun's rays than is any other star" Conv. The Fourth Heaven, moved by the Powers Potestati , emblematical of Arithmetic A ritmetica , is that of the Sun, the chief material light, and the middle Planetary Heaven. It is tenanted by the Spirits of those who loved Wisdom, the great spiritual and intellectual lights of Divinity and Philosophy Spiriti Sapienti.

The Seventh Heaven, moved by the Thrones Troni , emblematical of Astrology Astrologia , is the cold orbit of Saturn, and is tenanted by the Spirits of Monks and Hermits who lived in the contemplation of holy things Spiriti Contemplanti. Here all the Elect have a place. None of the nine heavens is the true abode of any spirit. The spirits appear in these heavens to meet Dante, but their real abiding place is the Mystical White Rose, and here they are seen in their true forms sitting on thrones which constitute the petals of the glorious flower of Heaven.

The Rose includes both a horizontal and a vertical division. The horizontal division is seen half way up; all the blessed below that line are those who died in infancy, all above it they who died in matured life. The vertical division is seen at the two opposite points of the half circumference, the Spirits on the left being those who in life had looked forward to Christ Coming, while the Spirits on the right are they who in life had looked backward to Christ Come.

Not all the thrones in this right-hand division are occupied, but the number of places still unoccupied are not many in number. Up in the farthest heights are manifested the glory of God Himself, the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, and the union of the Divine with the Human Nature of the Son of God.

Much has been written about the conjectural dimensions of Dante's Hell and Purgatory, but no attempts have ever been made to compute the limits of his Paradise. Immensity is the key-note of all Dante's conceptions, and his Paradise extends into the undefined and boundless expanse of the most distant regions of the universe.

The probable dates between which Dante began and ended his composition of the Inferno and the Purgatorio are the subjects of many treatises, but of the Paradiso we have had but scant information. In Readings on the Inferno, vol. He had doubtless arranged a skeleton form, the dry bones of which he may from time to time have clothed with flesh.

Perchance all the episodes and all the similes of the Commedia had been collected together like so many rare gems to form a diadem, which he only put together in the last- eight years of his life. Witte Forschungen, vol. I39 expresses a strong belief that Dante's dedication of the Paradiso to Cangrande Ep. He sees no reason to disbelieve the statement of Boccaccio, that the last thirteen Cantos of the Paradiso were only discovered in a secret hiding place after the death of their author.

Some portions of the Paradiso, beyond a doubt, became known during Dante's life, for Cecho d' Ascoli, a poet who was burnt alive at Florence in , in his poem L' A cerba, makes more than one allusion to passages which he must have seen in Dante's Third Cantica, e. Whatever be the truth as to when the Paradiso was begun, and when ended, I cannot believe that it was only composed and written in the closing days of Dante's life. There is in it no trace of haste, nor is it the work of an author whose best style had passed away, and who wrote in the evening of his life.

It displays a vigour which renders such a supposition impossible, and the soaring flights of Dante's lofty conceptions reach in his Paradiso a sublimity that seem to carry his readers through the radiant portals of Heaven itself. All in it is Light-glowing, flashing, dazzling Light-Light in the bright regions through which he passes-increasing as he is conveyed higher and higher to one sphere more radiant than another.

He says himself that the composition of his great poem had been the labour of many years. XXXVll We read at the end of the Vita Nuova that this poem was to be the great object of his life, that in it he might speak of his Beatrice as never woman was extolled before, and we can hardly believe that that part of the poem in which her Apotheosis is specially mentioned would have been left to the last. Of course, from the time of the death of Henry VII in I to Dante's own death in I32I, much would have to be filled in or altered, but it seems plain to me that the outline and principal episodes had been written long before, and indeed that they were not altogether unknown to Dante's contemporaries.

The most valuable and thoughtful discussion of this interesting subject, I find in a treatise by Professor Francesco D' Ovidio of Naples, entitled Tre Discussioni Dantesche Naples, I , one of which is La data della composizione e divulgazione della Commedia, and I am glad that Prof. D' Ovidio has emphasized the separation between the composition and the publication. He thinks with Witte that Boccaccio's story is quite credible, and that Dante had been struck down by death before he had made a complete publication of the whole Commedia. But says Prof. D' Ovidio that does not mean that part of the poem may not have leaked out, to friends, to admirers, or to patrons of the poet.

It cannot be too strongly pointed out that in those days the issue of works did not leave between the published and the unpublished that gulf which printing has introduced in our time. There was not such a considerable difference between the sending to a friend the transcript, or part-transcript, of a book, and the sending out many transcripts.

Let us remember that Boccaccio, in order to bring Petrarch to condescend to read the Commedia at all, felt himself obliged to send him a copy written by his own hand. Let us remember that in those days there was no such thing as copyright, or at all events not copyright as at present understood; and also that the poor exile would no doubt feel himself obliged every now and then to send to his protectors an occasional specimen of his genius, lest they might think that his mind was a barren soil.

We have learned in the precious correspondence between Dante and Giovanni del Virgilio that the latter was acquainted with the passage in the Inferno where Dante describes himself as one of the six poets in Limbo; also of the part assigned to Statius, and about the river Lethe, in the Purgatorio.

Allusion, too, is made to the comic recitations that were being made by street singers of the satirical hits that had become known, and Dante, we read, promises Giovanni del Virgilio to send him ten Cantos of the Paradiso; alluding at the same time to the Inferno and Purgatorio as works completed and published. Most significant is the following:" quum mundi circumflua corpora cantu Astricolaeque meo, velut infera regna, patebunt, Devincire caput hedera lauroque juvabit. D 'Ovidio paraphrases thus: " It will be my delight to crown myself with laurel when in my verses shall have been unveiled the revolving bodies of the universe and the companies of the Saints, as have already been unveiled the realms below, that is,.

Giovanni del Virgilio takes Dante to task for casting such pearls before swine, as to allow the solemn contents of his poem to go forth to the lower orders in the common dialect of the country, instead of retaining it sacred for students in Latin, the language of the cultured literary world. All this indicates that parts of the Commedia were so well known at the time, that the very street singers had got hold of them. Petrarch seems to have written very contemptuously to Boccaccio about it, sarcastically compassionating Dante for being read among idiotic people in the taverns and open squares, tossed about by the breezes of popular applause, the delight of washerwomen, of tavern-keepers, and corporals sic.

There are two sonnets of the Venetian poet Giovanni Quirini, in one of which he sends, as a loan to a friend, li libro di Dante, begging him to take great care of it; but it is not clear from it whether Dante was still alive. In the other he supplicates some great personage, most probably Cangrande, to come to a decision, and publish to the world Dante's third Cantica. The following are the lines:" Io sono un vostro fedel servidore bramoso di veder la gloria santa del Paradiso ch' el poeta canta;.

Lo qual intese, et so ch' intende ancore, che di voi prima per lo mondo spanta agli altri fosse questa ovra cotanta. The words so ch' intende ancore rather point to Quirini's friendly presumption of being himself the safe interpreter of Dante now that Dante is dead. The words imply: " He intended when he was alive, and my heart tells me that he still has the same intention up there in heaven, that you should be the publisher of his third Cantica.

In short, one may gather from this episode that, when Quirini wrote his sonnet, perhaps in sorrow for the quite recent death of Dante, and in intense anxiety lest Italy should lose the completion of his great work, the Inferno and Purgatorio were widely known, if not actually published; so that the anxiety of Quirini, as an admirer of Dante, must have been for the literary fate of the Paradiso alone. D'Ovidio scouts the idea promulgated by certain learned authorities, that Dante only sat down to write his poem after the death of Henry VII.

In that case the many years piui anni of study, devoted to the Sacred Poem, which, in his words Par. The work in its entirety certainly did not issue till after Dante's death, but it is evident that he allowed passages here and there, even of the Paradiso, to become known; and it is certain that it could only be after the year I that the finishing touches could have been put to either of the three Cantiche.

The Paradiso has the name of being, and is, by far the most difficult and obscure of the three parts of the Divine Comedy. Ordinary readers are arrested in their progress by the number of metaphors and allegories; by the arrangement of the Heavenly Spheres according to the now obsolete Ptolemaic system, and more than all, by philosophical and theological expositions.

Even Dante's own son Pietro seems to have shrunk from solving some of the intricate problems discussed by his father, for in his own commentary on the Commedia, at the end of Canto ii of the Paradiso, he remarks: " Alia per te vide, immo omnia, quia nil vidi, nec intellexi. For these latter, as Dante himself tells us Par.

But these are not the only excellences of the Paradiso, and the non-philosophical reader will find in it passages of rare and matchless beauty. Among others we may mention, what Mr. Gardner Dante Primer, p. The Saone does not flow into the sea, but into the Rhone, and is not therefore what Dante Purg. Francis compared with the cherubic light of St. Dominic, and the beautiful description of the life of the former Canto xi ; Dante's ascent into the Heaven of Mars, and the Warrior Spirits in the form of a Heavenly Cross Canto xiv ; the noble Canto of Cacciaguida and the description of ancient Florence Canto xv ; the old families Canto xvi ; Cacciaguida's prediction of the sorrows of Dante's future life Canto xvii ; the evil rulers of Europe reprehended by the mouth of the Eagle Canto xix ; Pier Damiano's description of his Monastery on Monte Catria Canto xxi ; Beatrice compared to a bird watching for the dawn, the glorious Vision of the Triumph of Christ, and the Apotheosis of the Virgin Canto xxiii ; the lines of infinite pathos and beauty in which Dante expresses his supreme hope that the recognition of his great poem may some day earn for him a recall from banishment Canto xxv ; the exquisite hymn sung by the Heavenly Host in the Stellar Heaven, and St.

Peter's denunciation of his unworthy successors Canto xxvii ; the reprehension by Beatrice of the preachers of Dante's time and of the sale of Indulgences Canto xxix ; the Empyrean, the River of Light, the Heavenly Rose, and the empty throne awaiting Henry VII Canto xxx ; Beatrice's return to her seat in the Rose, and the glory of the Blessed Virgin Canto xxxi ; and finally St.

Bernard's beautiful prayer to the Virgin, and Dante's sublime vision of the Holy Trinity. There is little reference to time in Dante's third Cantica which can be spoken of with any certainty. We believe that he returned from Eunoe at noon on Wednesday in Easter week, and that he and Beatrice began to ascend from the Earthly Paradise into Heaven at that same hour. There are two references to time, but of a rather doubtful nature, in Par.

Dante is thought by some to have taken twenty-four hours to ascend through the Spheres into the Empyrean, and to have awakened from his vision on the morning of Friday in Easter week in our world, thereby taking seven days for the time supposed to have been occupied by him in making his mystical journey through the three Realms of the unseen world. In reading the Divina Commedia, one is constantly met with references to the life and feelings of the Poet himself, which merit respectful attention.

These references have many illustrations in the traditional stories relating to Dante, which enlist our sympathy and approval. There are two classes of writers on. My own preference is with those who display a tender regret in abandoning any long-cherished tradition or episode, where close and impartial investigation has failed to convince them of its authenticity. Their gentle handling of the subject contrasts pleasantly with what one may be tempted to call the note of brutal exultation with which the other class of writers, both English and foreign, are apt to trumpet their success, if able to throw doubts upon some hitherto well-established belief, when following Dante through the hidden paths of his exiled life.

How much posterity owes to Dante's sorrows! The man, who had so sorrowed himself, has left in his writings comfort and consolation to many a sorrowing heart, among those who read him in modern times. And while our feelings of wrathful indignation are on the one hand aroused against that unnatural Florence, which dealt so hardly with the greatest of her sons; yet, on the other hand, we find that Dante's own eager yearnings after the city of his birth, to which, up to the moment of his latest breath, he still hoped to return, have made us love that Florence for his sake.

As I often remarked in these volumes, one leading fact, too often lost sight of, should always be kept in view, namely, that Dante was a Florentine, and wrote for Tuscans. Their beautiful language, with its boundless wealth of idioms and matchless grace of pronunciation, was that of his Divine Comedy.

Every word of his great poem had a set purpose, and must be investigated from the Tuscan point of view, rather than from that of the poorer language of Piedmont and Lombardy. The most homely utensils of domestic furniture in Tuscany were brought in to serve the purpose of his similes. Take one instancethe familiar conca, the earthenware pan for containing lye, so well known in every Tuscan household, the almost conical shape of which serves him to describe the shape of Hell Inf. Take the rosta, the wattle-screen on the Pistojan hills, which guards the chestnut crop in the woods from being swept away by a sudden mountain flood, but which in the Forest.

These are but two instances taken at hazard, the one from the domestic life of the townspeople, the other from that of the peasantry of Dante's ever remembered, ever regretted country. In Inf. This simile is not borrowed from the kitchens of great people. Dante did not write for such as Lucullus and Apicius only, and his comparisons had to be taken from the most common objects. Again, when describing the grievous torment these shades were undergoing from the irritation of skin disease, he likens their frantic efforts to get relief, to the curry-combing of a horse by a groom, or to the scaling of a fish by a cook.

The familiar aspect, existing to this day in Italy, of blind beggars sitting on the ground outside the doors of the Churches, leaning against each other, comes back to his mind when in Purg. The malaria of the Tuscan Maremma, and the futile attempts of those days to cure it by drainage, are cited; as is in another place the insalubrious valley of the Chiana, whose sluggish course formed marshes so pestiferous that, in Dante's time, not only had branch hospitals to be established all-over the district,.

In Purg. But the Divine Comedy is Dante himself. If there exists a work from which it is impossible to separate for one instant the presence of its author, it is indeed this one. Dante is unceasingly present-he is indeed scarcely absent in a single line-he is at the same time the hero and the chief actor in its scenes. It is with him that we undergo the glare of the flames of Hell, with him that we shiver in the icy blasts of Cocytus. Were once his presence removed, in an instant the illusive image, which had kept our hearts and minds in subjection, would vanish likewise.

It is among the torments of Hell and the penances of Purgatory that we see Dante in all his humanity. In Purgatory, too, we see Dante's humanity even more strongly exhibited. There is one quality that he exhibits in himself, which is a singular contrast to the character tradition gives him of having fought as a brave soldier at the battle of Campaldino, and that is, his pusillanimity if the expression is not too strong whilst journeying through Hell and Purgatory.

He is always afraid; he is continually relating his fears. He clutches hold of Virgil in frantic terror, he hides himself behind his shoulders. We must not forget that the Divina Commedia is all fiction, and that probably Dante's assumed cowardice is merely an artist's device to intensify the horror of what he describes. Two curious pictures he gives us of the barbarous punishments of his times. The one, where he minutely describes the custom then prevalent of binding a robber to a stake, and afterwards planting him head downwards in a hole dug for the purpose; and how the friar bent down to hear the confession of the inverted malefactor, before the moment when the hole would be filled up and the victim choked.

The other picture is when Virgil, in obedience to the call of the Angel, urges Dante to walk through the zone of fire which alone separates him from the stairway to the Earthly Paradise where he is to meet Beatrice. All Dante's horror-struck feelings are aroused to the highest degree, and his highly-wrought imagination recalls the ghastly and sickening details he has witnessed of criminals being burned at the stake; nor must we forget that his mind would have.

It is a beautiful and touching incident of his life, that when he had already attained to the first rank as a man of letters; when his learning and science had earned for him a world-wide reputation, he could yet, in those lines of infinite pathos and beauty Par. In comparison with the joy of being re-admitted into his native city-but readmitted without dishonour-all earthly distinctions in his eyes were valueless. He had apparently travelled in foreign countries, without however contracting any love for foreign nations, i. His world is Italy-his State is Tuscany-his city is Florence. Of the many pictures and busts which claim to represent Dante, there are but two which can be regarded as likenesses of genuine authenticity.

These are a the death-mask in the Museum of Florence, and b the portrait by Giotto in the Bargello. The former will be found as the frontispiece of my Readings on the Inferno, the latter forms the frontispiece of my Readings on the Purgatorio. It is with this latter that I am chiefly concerned. The most competent observers have come to the conclusion that the resemblance of the portrait to the cast is unmistakable.

Filippo Villani, in his Life of Giotto, says that in a painting on the walls of the chapel of the Bargello, then known as the Palazzo del Podesta, Giotto had introduced portraits of himself and of Dante, but he does not mention the circumstance in his own life of Dante. The only one of the early biographers who does allude to it is Landino, who, after naming two portraits of Dante, one in Santa Croce, and the other in the Cappella del Podesta, says of the latter "resta ancora.

These passages in Villani and Vasari aroused much attention with the revival of Dante studies in Italy at the beginning of the last century, and both Moreni about I8oo, and Missirini in I, made prolonged though ineffectual search for the portraits. They obtained permission from the authorities to clear the chapel of the Bargello and remove the plaster, and had associated with them-most unfortunately as it turned out-a certain Antonio Marini, an unsuccessful painter of Pisa. For a long time their labours were in vain, for the walls were so thickly covered with plaster that they could only remove it very slowly and carefully.

At last, on the 2ISt July, I, they came upon the painting, and saw Dante's face with all the freshness of youth upon it, and before sorrow and disappointment had marked their indelible traces upon his noble countenance. He is represented as the middle figure in a group of three, while the other two figures seem to bear out the statements of F. Dante's dress appears to be the ordinary civil costume of the upper classes, and is similar to his attire in Michelino's portrait of him in the Duomo. His hair is entirely concealed by the cap, so that one cannot verify the tradition of its having been auburn-tinted in his youth.

He carries. It has been thought that these symbolize the three Kingdoms of Hell, Purgatory and Paradise. As Kirkup secretly made a copy of the portrait of Dante in a small book before it had been irreparably damaged by Marini, it will be interesting to hear his own remarks about it.

These have been very kindly furnished me by Colonel William Gillum, who is the actual possessor of the little book with Kirkup's original coloured copy. He often showed me his copy of the Convivio, with the Bargello portrait of Dante painted on the inside of the parchment cover Both in and during the three years we were in Florence from to i he talked over and over again of the Bargello portrait. Kirkup had made a contract with Marini to clear the chapel in the Bargello then a prison.

It-had been divided in two, and used as a pantry for the prisoners. Kirkup took his little copy of L' Amoroso Convivio Convito and holding it in his hat, made an outline sketch. Iv third visit he coloured it; at a fourth he finished it. Once he got himself locked in while the workmen went to dinner, got on the scaffolding, and made a tracing. From this, and from the coloured drawing in the Convivio, he made the drawing for Lord Vernon, which was reproduced by the Arundel Society.

He drove two large beams into the wall, but this having been forbidden by Kirkup, trestles cavalletti were used. Crowds flocked to the chapel when it was known that the frescoes were discovered. After about six months, Government took the work up which Kirkup had begun, paying Marini 40 scudi. When first the hole which destroyed the eye was seen, Marini said it was a nail.


It may have been put in by some prisoner to hang things on. At first it was small, but Kirkup declared that fingers had been put in, with the remark 'v'e un buco. Kirkup was refused re-admission. Marini wished to make and engrave a copy of the fresco. The vest of the original was green, but authority-troppo gelosa -for political reasons, would not allow the red, white and green the Italian national colours to remain, and ordered Marini to alter the dress into a chocolate colour, as had been done to Michelino's picture in. The new eye is too small, and too near the nose. The nose of the restoration is too aquiline, and the face altogether different.

Giotto's fresco might now be restored by carefully applying a wet cloth and probing carefully. Three pomegranates in Dante's right hand denote the three Kingdoms. There is a crown on the top of the pomegranate 'pomo coronato'. One day Kirkup told me the pomegranates were there when he made the sketch; but as his object was to draw the face, he did not draw them then, and Marini destroyed them. I obtained from Professor D' Ancona of Pisa a letter of introduction to the Sindaco of Ravenna, the Marquis Rasponi, to whom I wrote offering a proof of the Arundel portrait of Dante for his town, and well deserving it, whilst Florence is so disgracefully indifferent to his memory.

The print is really a fine work of art, both for its beauty and its great correctness, for which I can answer. There is nothing of my own. I refused to restore the eye which Mr. Marini destroyed by pulling out a nail, and I left the hole as I found it at the time as a pledge of the authenticity of the rest. Ivii told me of, or the sarcophagus in his chapel I daresay there are not many alive who saw it in the short time it was visible, before it was so badly repainted by a wretched dauber, who was sent away from Pisa for his incapacity, and obtained this job from the favour of Cavalier Montalvo, who has ruined most of the best works in the Pitti palace and the Uffizi, which were in the most perfect condition.

He also had a hand in destroying all the monuments of Dante in Florence, and the grand font of the Baptisteria [sic] of Pisa; in Florence the portrait by Giotto, and that by Michelino, the house, the Sasso, the Villa, the tomb of Guglielmo Berardi [who fell at the battle of Campaldino], the bust at the Studio, all since I arrived in Florence in Rossetti's coment [sic] is at Vieusseux's Library you say.

He dedicated it to me for finding Giotto's fresco. Is there no chance of recovering that? They have owned they are afraid of O. A little water is all that is wanted, applied with caution and delicacy-it ought not to cost more than 10 dollars. Soon there will be no one alive who ever saw the original. You know from my sketch how different it was in I to the present daub-and the Arundel tracing is a facsimile.

What other city could boast such monuments as these few treasures of Dante? The ignorant fools will neither preserve them nor let others do it. Think if we had such memorials of Shakespeare, what care would be taken to save them! II riproduce fedelmente 1' opera antica, prima che i restauri praticati nel dipinto 1' anno 1' avessero non poco alterata, rifacendo 1' occhio sinistro con parte della guancia, e variando la forma del cappuccio e il colore delle vesti.

L' occhio fu.

II cappuccio originalmente era bianco ma soppannato in rosso, rossa la cappa e soppannata in bianco, di sotto alla quale scorgevasi un farsetto di color verde che ora non pii si vede. Dal che apparisce che il bianco, il rosso e il verde erano i simbolici colori, ne' quali solevasi Dante rappresentare, non altrimenti che la sua Beatrice da lui descritta nel Purgatorio: 'Sotto candido vel cinta d' oliva Donna m' apparve sotto verde manto, Vestita di color di fiamma viva.

From this original drawing now at Sudbury Hall, Derbyshire, was made the Arundel reproduction. The photograph, which is the frontispiece of the Album Volume of the Vernon Dante, was taken by Lord Vernon's son, William Warren Vernon, from the original drawing at the beginning of Rimasto cosi lungamente occulto e dimenticato, fu finalmente ricercato e scoverto per opera dei Signori Bezzi e Wilde, nel , dietro gl' indizi loro dati dal Seymour Kirkup sui ricordi lasciatine dal F Villani e dal Vasari.

Canto I. Easter I. Immediately after Dante's return from the holy water of Wednesday, Eunoi Purg. Dante, like Beatrice, is able to gaze upon the Sun's rays Dante, awe-struck at the extraordinary increase of sunlight around him, is informed by Beatrice that he is swiftly rising from earth into heaven Canto II. Dante finds himself in a pale shimmering light 25, He has reached the first planet, the Heaven of the Moon 29, Canto III.

Dante discerns the faces of certain beings before him, but so dimly, that he thinks they are but reflections of real images behind him i6-i8. Beatrice tells him that they are real spirits of those who have failed to keep holy vows 29, Dante addresses the spirit of his kinswoman, Piccarda de' Donati Piccarda tells Dante who she was And why she and her fellow-spirits have been relegated so low down in heaven Ixi 6.

But that they are perfectly resigned to the will of God 70 One of her companions is the spirit of the Empress Constance i8. Canto IV. Two doubts are perplexing Dante: Beatrice tells him what they are i6, r7. Her words have emanated from the. Spirit of God, the Fountain of all Truth Dante tells Beatrice of a further doubt II Canto V. Having removed Dante's further doubt concerning the binding force of vows, Beatrice subsides into silence, and Dante also remains speechless They quit the sphere of the Moon, and ascend into that of Mercury 9I They are accosted by the spirits of those who, in their lifetime, were energetic in the pursuit of honour and glory.

These spirits throng round Dante, as fish do round any food thrown into their pond 00oo Canto VI. The spirit names himself to Dante, speaking of his Imperial dignity as a thing of the past Io. He informs Dante of his work as a legislator And how he became a convert to the Faith I6-I8. And that Bellisarius was his chief general He censures the Ghibellines who claim a right to the Roman Eagle, the symbol of Empire, and the Guelphs who set themselves against it 3I The record of the Eagle entitles it to universal respect 34, The qualifications of the spirits in the sphere of Mercury I Romeo, the great minister of Raymond Berenger, Count of Provence, whose four daughters Rom6o married to Kings Canto VII.

Justinian breaks forth into a hymn celebrating the Church both before and after Christ I The spirits of Justinian and his companions fade away Beatrice will clear away certain doubts which are perplexing Dante's mind Canto VIII. Dante becomes aware of his transition into the Planet Venus by perceiving the increasing loveliness of Beatrice I He discerns bright spirits that shine as sparks in a flame. These are the souls of lovers who loved with a pure love The spirit of Charles Martel, of Hungary, approaches He does not name himself, but he tells Dante that, had he lived, he would have let him taste of the fruit of his love, and not only to gaze upon the blossoms and foliage which precede that fruit His younger brother Robert was the niggardly son of a munificent father He blames men in the world who, ignoring the disposition inspired by heavenly influences, continually turn the greatest intellects to mistaken ends II Canto IX.

Dante names Charles and " his Clemence" [whom I take to be his wife, daughter of Rudolph of Hapsburg]. He says that the spirit of Charles quitted him and turned back to the All-Sufficing God The spirit of Cunizza da Romano accosts Dante 13, Because during her lifetime she yielded to the influence of love, she is now relegated to the Sphere of Venus 32, She speaks of the spirit nearest to her, Folco of Marseilles After predicting the misfortunes that are to befall her native land, the massacres in Padua, the violent death of Riccardo da Cammino, and the cruel treachery of the Bishop of Feltre, she ceases to speak 64, Dante having asked Folco who he is, that spirit gives a description of the Mediterranean Sea, and tells Dante that he was born on that coast Ixiii 7.

The spirit names himself and avows that in life he followed the influence of the planet Venus Folco names Rahab, and her merits rI5-I Folco says that the Pope's neglect of the Holy Land is due to the avaricious love of the whole priesthood for the accursed flower, meaning the Lily stamped on the florin , and that for this greed religious study has been thrust aside II Canto X. Dante ascends to the Fourth Sphere of Heaven, the Sun, so instantaneously that he is not aware of it Dante says that in vain would he attempt to describe the splendour of the souls in this Fourth Sphere 4I Dante is encircled by the spirits of the twelve great Theologians He is addressed by St.

Thomas Aquinas, who names his master Albertus Magnus, and himself, as Dominicans After naming the Benedictine monk and legist, Gratian, St. Thomas points out Peter Lombard Io6-Io8. Solomon, so wise, that no one else even equalled him II4. Dionysius, the Areopagite, who wrote about the Celestial Hierarchy 16, After alluding to Orosius, and Boethius, St. Thomas groups together St. Isidore, the Venerable Bede, and Richard de St.

Canto XI. Thomas, a Dominican, sings the praises of St. Francis of Assisi. Providence ordained two Princes, St. Francis and St. Dominic, to be the especial guides of the Church the Bride of Christ, the former of Seraphic fervency, the latter Cherubic in his light of learning The piety of St. Francis in early life Poverty was the Bride of St. Francis, whom St. Thomas now names for the first time He mentions Bernardo of Quintavalle, Egidio, and Silvestro, who followed Francis in becoming bare-footed friars The foundation of the Order of St.

Thomas tells Dante that when St. Francis retired to Alvernia, he received in his hands and feet the stigmata of Christ, and then died in the bosom of Poverty IO7 -I Dominic, a worthy colleague of St. Francis, and the head of the Order to which he, St. Thomas, belongs Dominic's flock in Dante's time seek for honours and dignities instead of keeping to their original vow , I Canto XII.

The garland of Dominican spirits revolving round Dante is suddenly enclosed by a similar garland of Franciscan spirits One of the Franciscan spirits, St. Bonaventura, from the outer garland commences to praise St. Dominic 3I Calaroga in Spain the birthplace of St. Dominic, the ardent lover of the Christian Faith Dominic sold all he had and gave to the poor, following the counsel of Our Lord Dominic made a fierce onslaught against heresy 98 -IOI.

Bonaventura names the twelve spirits of the outer garland, beginning with himself and two obscure but holy friars II3I. Then follow Hugh de St. Canto XIII. Thomas Aquinas speaking again, explains to Dante that he is right in thinking the wisdom of Solomon inferior to that of Adam and of Christ. Ixv Canto XIV. Solomon speaks of the glorious appearance of the Blessed after the resurrection of the Body Dante finds that he has been transported with Beatrice into the Fifth Sphere 83, They have reached the fiery tinted Sphere of Mars Dante sees the spirits of the saintly warriors who fought for Christ.

These, shining in different degrees, formed the sign of the Cross Ioo-Io2. They flit rapidly along the two lines of the Cross, both perpendicularly and horizontally Iog9-iI. The hymn of praise "Risurgi e vinci" sung by the spirits bind him with fetters of love I Canto XV. The warrior spirits pause in their melody, in order that Dante may speak i. Cacciaguida, an ancestor of Dante, darts from one arm of the Cross of the Holy Warriors to the foot of that same Cross The spirit addresses Dante in Latin as his kinsman He tells Dante that, although he can read the wish in Dante's heart, Dante must unfold his desire Dante entreats the spirit to accept his mute expression of thanks, and to reveal his name, addressing him as a living topaz The spirit replies: "Thou art my descendant, I was thy ancestor.

Thy great-grandfather was my son. He is still enduring penance for Pride in Purgatory. Pray for him " Cacciaguida sketches in outline the simple and peaceful life of Florence in his own days His birth, his baptism in San Giovanni, his kinsmen, and his marriage II He became a Crusader and a knight, was killed by the Saracens, and came to Heaven Canto XVI. Cacciaguida's words arouse a feeling in Dante of pride of lineage, quickly suppressed I.

Dante asks Cacciaguida who were his ancestors, in what year was he born, what was the population of Florence in his time, and who were its chief citizens Cacciaguida was born in iog9, his ancestors lived in the district of Porta San Piero; the population of Florence was small, but were all of pure descent I. Some great Florentine families are extinct, and their names forgotten He recalls the peaceable condition of Florence , I In his time a victorious State had never dishonoured the standard of its adversary, nor had the Lily of Florence been changed from white to red II Canto XVII.

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Dante enquires if Cacciaguida can interpret certain predictions made to him in Hell and Purgatory as to his destiny 25, Cacciaguida tells him that he will be driven by calumny from Florence, even as Hippolytus was driven from Athens Dante's future sufferings and humiliations Dante will separate himself from his unworthy fellow-exiles At the Court of Bartolommeo della Scala Dante will meet his brother Can Grande, too young at present to be known Dante shall still be alive when his sinful fellow-citizens, and their punishment, shall be things of the past 97 Cacciaguida charges Dante to speak out the whole truth about his contemporaries II Dante has only been shown the spirits of the great, whether good or bad, and his poem will, like the wind, only attack the highest summits II Dante, passing from the red planet Mars into the Sixth Sphere, the Heaven of Jupiter, perceives that the light has become white instead of red The spirits of those who rightly administered justice on earth form in luminous letters the words Diligitejustitiam qui judicatis terram Ixvii 4.

The letter "M" of this celestial inscription undergoes various changes, and finally its summit shapes itself into the head and neck of an Eagle Dante implores the spirits who form the Eagle, the Emblem of Empire, to entreat God that the Princes of the Earth may not err after the evil example of the Popes I Canto XIX. The spirits are transformed into the figure of a complete Eagle with outspread wings i, 2. Dante entreats them to solve a doubt 25, The doubt is as to whether a virtuous heathen, dying unbaptized and without the Faith, can be with justice condemned 75, The Eagle censures the presumption of those who venture to sit in judgment on the Justice of God If Dante could not understand certain strains of the Eagle, how could he expect to comprehend the Justice of God?

Many professing Christians will be found among the reprobate, and many who knew not Christ among the elect Io6-io8. The Eagle unfolds a terrible page of the book of Eternity xI 2- 4. Canto XX. The Eagle tells Dante that six spirits of surpassing excellence, among the Princes who governed their realms most justly, form the arc of its eye David forms the pupil of the eye Of the five who form the eye-lid, Trajan comes first 44, Then Hezekiah I.

Next Constantine who wrought evil to the Church by the Donatio Constantini, though with good intentions William II, King of Sicily, whose good reign is regretted by his subjects now under the rule of his unworthy successors 62, Ripheus, the Trojan, a character in Virgil's Eneid, is the fifth of the spirits forming the arc of the Eagle's eye Dante, astonished at finding in heaven two pagans, Ripheus, born before Christ, and Trajan, born after, who had died without believing in Him, learns from the Eagle that they both died Christians in spirit o Canto XXI.

Beatrice informs Dante that they have reached the Sphere of Saturn, the abode of the contemplative spirits I3. Dante sees a ladder of pure gold extending further up than the eye can reach, and numberless shining ones ascending and descending The spirit of San Pier Damiano draws near, and Dante asks him why he has approached, and why, in this heaven only, there is a cessation of the sweet melodies heard in the other Spheres Pier Damiano tells him that mortal hearing could not endure the excess of sweetness of their singing, any more than mortal sight could endure Beatrice's smile He has descended the stairway to greet Dante, not because he has greater love than his fellow-spirits, but to fulfil his duty Pier Damiano describes his retreat on Monte Catria, and tells his name I He denounces the luxury of the Cardinals, whose furred cloaks are so long that their steeds are nearly invisible Other spirits flock down the holy stair at Damiano's words, and utter a shout of indignation I40, I4I.

Canto XXII. Dante sees a hundred of the contemplative spirits upon the heavenly stair. The most radiant one among them, St. Benedict, addresses him Benedict speaks of himself as the founder of the Benedictine Order of Monte Cassino Other bright spirits of his Order Benedict tells Dante that his request to see his face is inopportune, but shall be granted when he reaches the Empyrean 6i, He upbraids the monks of Dante's time; the Rule of his Order has become mere waste paper 74, Ixix 6. Benedict and his fellow-spirits are swept away up the heavenly stair Beatrice, by a mere sign, impels Dante to ascend the Holy Stair.

Dante in Gemini, to whose influence he ascribes his poetic genius 7. Dante can see below him the whole of the inhabited earth, so insignificant, that he compares it to a mere threshing floor I Dante sees Beatrice gazing towards the South, like a bird on its nest watching for the dawn Io-I2.

The heavens become more resplendent, and Beatrice proclaims the approach of the Triumph of Christ , 3. Dante sees thousands of lights, and one Divine Sun giving lustre to them 28, In the fiery light of that Sun he discerns the Essence or Personality lucente sustanzia of Christ, and finds he is in the Presence of God Himself Dante passes over many of the things he saw in Heaven as too ineffable for man to utter 6x Beatrice reproves Dante for contemplating her, and bids him rather gaze upon the garden in which are the Rose the Virgin Mary , and the Lilies the Apostles Canto XXIV.

Beatrice entreats the assembled Saints to shed some dew upon Dante from their Fountain of Knowledge 8, 9. Peter addresses Beatrice as " Sister I " Beatrice entreats St. Peter to examine Dante concerning his Faith Peter's first question is: "What is Faith? Peter is satisfied with Dante's answer as to his Faith, but does Dante possess this Faith?

Dante obtained his Faith from the rain of the Holy Spirit, poured forth in the Scriptures Dante's belief in inspiration of Scripture, the credibility of miracles, and the crowning miracle of all, the spread of Christianity. Dante answers the final question: " What dost thou believe? Peter, rejoicing at Dante's recitation of his Faith, encircles him three times as though embracing him, and in his holy chant pronounces a blessing I Canto XXV. James approaches Dante. Beatrice indicates him as the Baron for whom pilgrimages are made into Galicia I3-i8.

Beatrice entreats him to examine Dante on Hope James asks Dante what Hope is, and whether he Dante possesses it 46, Beatrice tells St. James that no son of the Church possesses this Hope more soundly than does Dante 52, Dante replies to the questions "What is Hope? James does thy Hope hold out to thee? John, invested with dazzling radiance, comes forward 0o Dante is dazzled by looking at St. John tells him that his body is buried on Earth I Canto XXVI.

Beatrice's glance can revive Dante's sight, as Ananias did that of St. Edited by Giuseppe C. Di Scipio. Translated by Joseph Tusiani. Introduction and Notes by Giuseppe C. Brooklyn, New York: Legas, Also included is the Italian text of the Vita Nuova as an appendix. The Divine Comedy. Revised Edition. Translated by James Finn Cotter. Forum Italicum Publications. The first edition of this verse translation of the Comedy appeared in see Dante Studies [], Edited and translated by Stanley Appelbaum. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Includes the complete text of thirty-three cantos thirteen from Inferno [1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 17, 21, 24, 26, 30, 33, 34] and ten each from the other two canticles [ Purg.

A translation with introduction and notes by Santa Casciani and Christopher Kleinhenz. This first English translation of these two works presents the Italian text with the English on the facing page. Translated by Robert and Jean Hollander. Introduction and notes by Robert Hollander.

New York: Doubleday, This new translation with extensive commentary presents the text of the Inferno with English on the facing page. Translated by W. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, The body of the volume presents on facing pages the Italian text and the English translation. Contents: Foreword vii-xxix ; Purgatorio ; Notes Paradiso II. In The Yale Review, 88, No. Bemrose, Stephen. A New Life of Dante. Beginning with his early activity as a lyric poet and this political career in Florence, it then moves to the power struggles leading to his exile in It goes on to cover his increasingly isolated wanderings ending with his final years in Verona and Ravenna.

Dante is an intensely philosophical writer as well as a socio-political one, and these intimately connected aspects are kept constantly in view in the extensive discussion of his writings. As well as his masterpiece the Divina Commedia , other works are also given considerable attention, particularly the De Vulgari Eloquentia , the Convivio , the Monarchia and the political letters. A Florentine Childhood ; 2. Beatrice and the Vita Nuova ; 3. The Consolation of Philosophy ; 4. Guilds and Government: Dante the Politician ; 5.

Early Exile ; 7. A One-Man Party ; 8. The Gentleman of Verona ; Ravenna ; Conclusion ; Notes ; Bibliography ; Index Cherchi, Paolo. Edited by Francesco Guardiani and Emilio Speciale. Ravenna: Longo, Il Portico. Biblioteca di Lettere e Arti, This homage volume contains reprints of twenty-five essays by Cherchi, as well as a bibliography of his writings Cornish, Alison. She follows the specific arguments and imagery of each selection, offering a guide both to his poetics and his ethics.

The Date of the Journey ; 3. The Harvest of Reading: Inferno 20, 24, 26 ; 4. Orientation: Purgatorio 9 ; 5. Losing the Meridian: From Purgatorio to Paradiso ; 6. The Shadows of Ideas: Paradiso 13 ; 7. The Sufficient Example: Paradiso 28 ; 8. Edited by Joseph Francese. West Lafayette, Indiana: Bordighera, Italiana 9. Four essays in this commemorative volume for Glauco Cambon are concerned with Dante.

The essays by Zygmunt G. The Dante Encyclopedia. Ferrante, Amilcare A. Iannucci, and Christopher Kleinhenz. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Entries on thematic, linguistic, historical, biographical, artistic and cultural items. The volume includes the following tables and appendices: 1 a Chronology of the Life of Dante Alighieri; 2 a useful list of the popes from the period C. Holmes, Olivia. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, Medieval Cultures, Parker, Deborah.

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Bronzino: Renaissance Painter as Poet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Raffa, Guy P. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Toronto Italian Studies. Includes an Introduction , Notes , and an Index Sloane, Patricia. Smith, Graham. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, Sparks and Seeds: Medieval Literature and its Afterlife. Essays in Honor of John Freccero. Edited by Dana E. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, , x, p.

Binghamton Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 2. More than half of the sixteen essays in this Festschrift for John Freccero are concerned, either wholly or in part, with Dante. Talbot, George , ed. Volume 1. Mellen Critical Editions and Translations, 4. Part 2 of book 1 contains an introduction to Trecento poetry influenced by Dante, as well as poems by Fazio degli Uberti and Frederico Frezzi, followed by an appendix, editorial notes and an index. Witt, Ronald G. Leiden: Brill, Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought, Alfie, Fabian.

Because Dante spent nearly half of his adult life perfecting his highly coherent masterpiece, most evidence needed to demonstrate the constant elaboration and reevaluation of the wide-ranging ideas that lay behind the genesis of the Commedia must be sought in the influence of his contemporaries and in an analysis of his minor works. The first eight cantos of the Inferno , for example, seem to belie an initial intention to structure the work based on the Seven Cardinal Sins.

Dante chose to present himself as a scriba Dei in order to communicate his sincere message of reform to a larger audience than that which would have responded to a philosophical encyclopedia and abandoned his earlier moral allegorical readings of the Aeneid in favor of a more congruously constructed theory of allegoresis that stemmed to a certain degree from an increased familiarity with Latin literature. These fresh concerns drove him to find a new language and a new literary form that were appropriate for the realization of his most ambitious project.

Barolini, Teodolinda. All desire, Guittone maintains, makes man an enemy to reason and thus results in a metaphorical death in life. Barolini analyzes Doglia mi reca as the poem moves from courtly matters to moral concerns, drawing attention to the submerged common theme of the poem: desire. While the image of the afterlife finds many of its sources in the popular tradition, it is mostly high Christian theology that influences the uniquely detailed structure of the Inferno.

From the contrapasso to the deadly potential of human desire, to improperly directed love, the theology of Hell draws its laws from Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. Block, Haskell M. Friedman , edited by Jay L. Bolduc, Michelle K. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, , p. Although linguistically and generically different, the four texts that I examine all juxtapose the sacred and profane in dynamic and non-hierarchical ways.

Finally, in his Commedia c. Boni, Franco. Doctoral dissertation, City University of New York, , p. I shall survey the views of some cosmographers who had a direct influence on Dante, such as Dionysius the Aeropagite, Avicenna, Albertus Magnus, and St. Thomas of Aquinas. As to the third goal, we shall attempt to show how this dynamic power or virtue of Love moves and connects the angelic Intelligences of the Empyrean, as Dante calls it, with the planetary spheres of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic universe.

Boyle, Marjorie O'Rourke. Branca, Vittore. An Introduction to a Seminar. It is time, then, for a new marriage of culture and philology, according to the lesson given in the west by Martianus Capella. Philology also serves the purpose of dating literary works with more exactness. A melancholy has come over the mind and heart of the author, which colors the message with a completely new tone.

The widespread belief that Boccaccio disavowed and condemned the Decameron as a youthful mistake is discredited by the discovery of a manuscript carefully handwritten and fastidiously illustrated by the author himself between and , when Boccaccio was almost sixty years old. Bufano, Luca. Cambon, Glauco. This essay was selected for the special commemorative issue of Dante Studies for the year by the Editorial Board in consultation with the Council of the Society.

It originally appeared in Dante Studies 84 , Carugati, Giuliana. Argues that carnal love figures as the imperceptible, precarious point of contact with the divine.

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The aporia between carnal love and reason finds resolution in the written word in Dante, as the confluence of two otherwise conflicting agents: love dictates and reason writes. In Inferno 5, the love of Paolo and Francesca bears witness to the irreconcilable relation of eros, on one side, and history, law, and reason, on the other. The Earthly Paradise at the end of Purgatorio proves that carnal love alone allows human beings to transcend history and rationality and become one with the divine.

The Earthly Paradise is the ideal locus, or rather a non-place, in which humans exit history to be rejoined with the divine, where reason and the babelic confusion of languages no longer exist. Cervigni, Dino S. The Comedy can thus be seen as comprising all literary genres. Briefly discusses also the Monarchia and De vulgari eloquentia. Chiampi, James T.

Chiarenza, Marguerite. Essays in Honor of John Freccero q. Solomon appears both in Purgatorio 30, as one who speaks in welcome of Beatrice, and in the Heaven of the Sun, where Dante controversially portrays him as saved. Colilli, Paul. Highlights the main interpretative trends in Dante criticism, focusing on some of the most significant works in the field.

Cachey, are also presented as examples of the variety of North American scholarship on Dante. Among the most interesting translations and editions, Colilli mentions the Vita Nuova translated and edited by Dino S. Cervigni and Edward Vasta. The work is of particular interest for the reconstruction of the Italian text offered in what is believed to be the original text, free of chapters and numbered divisions.

The article concludes with commentary on some recent contributions to criticism on Petrarch and on Boccaccio. Colonnese-Benni, Vittoria. It also featured several captions or intertitles that cited directly from Dante. This essay explores the fascinating interactions among gender, power, and language in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Italian vernacularizations.

Vernacularization lies at the heart of Italian writing in this period, from prose versions of classical literature and rhetoric to the translation of Aristotelian science implicit in the love lyric. Ultimately, this essay shows how gender complicated the already anxiety-ridden project of vernacularization by feminizing the discourse of Latin learning, ennobling the vernacular and those who used it, and thus posing a potential threat to learned, Latin, male privilege. Costa, Dennis. Davis, Charles T. It originally appeared in Dante Studies 93 , The Veltro , who will be an emperor yet to come, will finally destroy such greed through restraint of law.

Such an emperor will be free from avarice because he already possesses all. Di Scipio , Giuseppe. Santa Barbara, Calif. Stony Brook, N. Fitzsimmons, Lorna. Francini, Antonella. Freccero, John. The essay traces an Augustinian paradigm in the prologue scene of Inferno 1, in the figure of Ulysses, and in the overarching conception of the Comedy as a spiritual autobiography. This obstacle can be overcome only through an askesis , a descent into oneself in humility, or death to the self, which in the Comedy becomes the journey through Hell.

The conclusion develops the parallels between the Confessions and the Comedy as spiritual autobiographies, particularly in the relation between author and protagonist. Gillerman, Dorothy Hughes. Gillerman's discussion of several of the more important illustrated manuscripts notes the presence of two distinct kinds of illumination: there are codices that depict scenes from the poet's narrative and others that interpolate scenes from classical mythology.

She notes that a comparison of the various manuscripts with other religious and secular codices from the same period could help identify the individual artists and help date the illuminated manuscripts of the Commedia. Gilson, Simon A. Studies in Italian Literature, 8.

Optics and Vision in Dante before the Comedy ; 3. Ginsberg, Warren. Gorton, Lisa. Grandgent, Charles Hall. Grandgent cita un testo protestante del The Day of Doom di M. Wigglesworth e alcuni testi cattolici, quali la Summa teologica di San Tommaso Suppl. XCIV, Art.

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IV, Dist. I, Cap. XL, N. Una di queste tracce si trova in Inferno , che secondo Grandgent riproduce lo schema di due scene di un apocrifo, largamente diffuso nel medioevo col titolo Vision of St. Vis plus esse misericors filio Dei? Hawkins, Peter S. Reconsiders the nature of the unexpected in the Divine Comedy. Whether attributed to destiny, predestination or Fortune especially as she is redefined in Inf. Dante uses dramatic moments of surprise in the encounter of Brunetto in Inferno 15 and in the reversal of expectation in the minor catalog of shades in Inferno 6 in order to spark the imagination of contemporary readers.

It is in Paradiso , however, that the technique of unanticipated disclosure holds more profound implications: the inclusion of Ripheus in the eyebrow of the eagle of divine justice Par. Hogan, Jennifer Ann. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, , p. The first is the institutional practice of a chosen philosophy of education. The second is the technologies that have afforded the facilitation of information production, consumption and distribution-essential processes of education.

Taking advantage of major reform opportunities in educational practice, made possible by an emerging digital information system, the current trend in education tends to relinquish the long tradition of philosophy of education and embraces the cultivation of a reflective and productive citizenry through education. However, by looking at the ways in which the technologies of their time constrained or enabled the imaginations of our most influential philosophers of education Plato, Rousseau and Dewey , we will better understand how real technologies and ideal philosophies are necessarily related.

With such knowledge, we may inform our educational reform alternatives with the goal of developing a democratic citizenry through education. In no way, is this dissertation meant to provide specific recommendations for educational reform, though the Digital Dante case study illustrates some possible reform alternatives. Rather, it is meant to demonstrate the ways in which technology and philosophy, educational institutions and industry and K and higher education are all necessary players in the goal of creating a new form of civic education.

Hollander, Robert. It originally appeared in Dante Studies 94 , Discusses some of the underlying principles and motivating factors of their new translation of the Inferno see above under Translations and present two passages from Cantos 24 and Howland Schotter, Anne. Essays in Honor of Robert O. Payne , edited by John M.

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Hill and Deborah M. Iannucci, Amilcare A. Preface by Giuseppe Mazzotta. Italian Literature and Thought Series. The collective nature of these accounts and impressions from people from the period offer a wide range of observations of diverse cultural and social trends, not to mention the growing propaganda of the Florentine Together, the documents demonstrate the social, political, religious, and cultural impact Florence had in shaping the Italian and European Renaissance, and they reveal how Florence created, developed, and diffused the mythology of its own origins and glory.

Jacoff, Rachel. Dante, too, struggles with the concrete and abstract implications of the interim between death and the resurrection of the body. In Hell, the resumption of flesh is presented negatively, as an increase in pain for the damned. At the same time, Solomon implies that the body acts as a signifier of human affective history.

Jacoff concludes with a contradiction: these three theoretical representations of the afterlife body, which, notably, are all delivered by poets who were not born Christian, do not always conform to the dramatic representations of the bodies of the souls the pilgrim meets. Kleiner, John.