As creativity scholar Teresa Amabile explains , whenever practitioners approach their work, they may chose to follow, on one hand, a tried-and-tested path to a clearly identified goal, or at the other extreme, they might not only design their own path, but even define the goal itself. The degree with which any creative process leans towards the former or latter scenarios can be described as representing predominantly algorithmic or heuristic approaches respectively.
A key element of emergence is feedback. Only after considering what is gradually coming together can the artist know how to proceed in a way that honours the integrity of the piece. Csikszentmihalyi expands:. Whereas a conventional artist starts painting a canvas knowing what she [sic] wants to paint, and holds to her original intention until the work is finished, an original artist with equal technical training commences with a deeply felt but undefined goal in mind, keeps modifying the picture in response to the unexpected colors and shapes emerging on the canvas, and ends up with a finished work that probably will not resemble anything she started out with.
If the artist is responsive to her inner feelings, knows what she likes and does not like, and pays attention to what is happening on the canvas, a good painting is bound to emerge. On the other hand, if she holds on to a preconceived notion of what the painting should look like, without responding to the possibilities suggested by the forms developing before her, the painting is likely to be trite.
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The occasional, or optimally moment-to-moment, awareness necessary to allow a work to emerge somewhat on its own terms — instead of merely following a formula — achieves its aim by sending a flow of valuable feedback to the artist. In this way, the artist responds, observes again, responds once more and so on. Such feedback loops are a key characteristic of non-linear systems in general. Pepper album cited in Badman, :.
That is, it is simultaneously changing-yet-stable. At first, the system can be said to be structurally constant but open with regard to the flow of feedback. Wilson was also concurrently juggling the multiple roles of composer, arranger, performer, musical director, producer and mixdown co-engineer. I was getting too fancy and arty and doing things that were just not Beach Boys, at all. Thirty-seven years later, in , within the context of a new supportive environment, Wilson was finally able to stand back and look at SMiLE for what it was, or might be, rather than what some less visionary individuals wanted to reduce it to.
Whereas Capra describes the manner in which emergent forms display characteristics not inherent within their parts, Chapouthier , conversely, highlights the fact that whilst being integrated into a larger whole, the component parts of many complex systems, living or otherwise, retain a surprisingly large degree of autonomy. This uneasy sense of belonging together and yet remaining apart can be described as a mosaic quality.
For example, he describes a cell as a mosaic of organites, an organ as a mosaic of cells, an organism a mosaic of organs, and so on. As in the case of more complex systems described above, it can be difficult for analysts to perceive the joins, which are smoothed over as the work is refined, giving the impression of inspired genius, rather than repeated interaction with the materials or concepts. Certain combinations seem to possess a kind of fit that is simultaneously aesthetically pleasing, appropriate and functional.
The ongoing activity of combinatorial play, rather than abstract logic, provides the opportunity for vital clues to emerge during the process that hint at possible fruitful paths onward through the chaos. Whereas the affect of Brian Wilson presents SMiLE is that of a well integrated symphonic whole, it was nonetheless, famously, an afterthought. Whilst the primary process of creating the modules themselves — as separate texts — was one of combinatorial play, the task of fashioning these resultant texts into larger structures was a similar, but secondary, compositional process of combinations and associations, albeit on a larger scale.
Once again, the process was a heuristic one rather than algorithmic. When a high degree of fit is evident however, analysts can mistake it as the product of conscious adherence to deterministic principals. In this context, the fragment functions as a bridge between the two sections. In this way, even though the modules featured are the same, simply re-arranging their order can make an easily discernable, qualitative difference to the whole.
This asymmetrical phenomenon has its counterpoint in language.
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The initial polysemy of any given term is reduced by its linear context; and so too, it can be argued that the musical function of any given motif can, likewise, be transformed by its placing. Though this concept has above been described in terms of linear organisation, it can also occur within a musical context in a concurrent fashion. Brian Wilson discusses how by studying the work of Phil Spector he learnt to produce new emergent sounds:. Making a guitar and a piano sound like a third thing.
I hear that as a guitar and piano. Dig that sound! Brian Wilson interview 2, Lieberman uses the analogy of a kaleidoscope to clarify how combinatorial play operates, so that a limited number of components are continually twisted, turned and reflected to produce a myriad of new patterns. Koestler likewise states how creativity and the act of playful combinations relate to each other:. The creative act is not an act of creation in the sense of the Old Testament. It does not create something out of nothing; it uncovers, selects, re-shuffles, combines, synthesizes already existing facts, ideas, faculties, skills.
The more familiar the parts the more striking the new whole. There might just be a few bars of music, or a verse, or a particular groove, or vamp… They would all fit. You could put them one in front of the other, or arrange it in any way you wanted. Whereas, multitrack recording allows the process to occur concurrently, tape editing techniques as used during the original SMiLE sessions rearrange recorded components in linear succession.
Such productions are assemblages of recorded artefacts, the joining together of many disparate musical utterances. Thanks to the recent proliferation of Digital Audio Workstations, the general public today can also create music in non-linear fashion. Abbott, K. London: Helter Skelter Publishing.
Amabile, T. In: Journal of personality and social psychology, 45 2 , Apter, M. A structural phenomenology of play. Apter Eds. Badman, K. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. Bell, M.
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Boyd, A. New York: Capitol Records. Chaos and complexity: implications for psychological theory and practice. Capra, F. The hidden connections: integrating the biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of life into a science of sustainability 1st ed. New York: Doubleday. Chapouthier, G. Csikszentmihalyi, M. Flow: the psychology of optimal experience 1st ed. DeRogatis, J. Turn on your mind: four decades of great psychedelic rock. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. Doggett, P. In: Abbott, K. In: Tomasello, M. Mahwah, N. Getzels, J. Creativity and intelligence; explorations with gifted students.
London, New York: Wiley. Guilford, J. In: Taylor, I. Chicago: Aldine. Hadamard, J. An essay on the psychology of invention in the mathematical field. Dynamic mosaic background vector. Mosaic card background vector. Dazzling shades of red mosaic pattern vector. Mosaic symphony background vector. Mosaic background vector 5. Beautiful mosaic background vector 02 vector. Bright mosaic background vector. Dynamic mosaic star background 04 vector. Bright mosaic design background vector 4.
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